|Central coordinates||75o 18.45' East 13o 21.03' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A2, A3|
|Altitude||134 - 1,892m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description Kudremukh National Park is located in the central Western Ghats and comprises highly complex vegetation mosaic of Tropical Wet Evergreen, Tropical Semi-Evergreen forest, Montane Wet Temperate Forest (Shola) and Montane Grassy Slopes richly nourished by several hill streams and torrents (Krishnamurthy et al. 2000). This Park is the largest protected area in the central part of the long chain of the Western Ghats. There are coffee and tea estates on the north and east, while the Ghats descend from an average of 1,500 m above msl to sea level on the west. To the northwest, an evergreen forest corridor connects the Park to the Someshwara Wildlife Sanctuary. A central ridge runs through the Park from north to south, with the highest point at Kudremukh Peak (1,892 m). Shola forest and grasslands dominate the Park above 1,400 m; lowland evergreen forest is present at lower elevations on both slopes of the hills. The Netravati, Tunga and Bhadra rivers originate in the Park.
AVIFAUNA: Over 170 bird species have been recorded by an environment impact assessment report of the Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (Anon. 2001). Hussain et al. (1999) also gave a checklist of the birds of Kudremukh. However, the area has not been intensively studied for avifauna. Even then, of the 16 species listed in the Western Ghats Endemic Bird Area, 14 are present in Kudremukh National Park. Only two species are not found in Kudremukh, the Nilgiri Pipit Anthus nilghiriensis and Nilgiri Laughingthrush Garrulax cachinnans. The former species is generally not found so for north in the Western Ghats, while the later species is confined to the Nilgiries. Similarly, this IBA is crucial to the conservation of biome species. Fifteen species have been identified by BirdLife International (undated) to occur in Biome-10 (Indian Peninsula Tropical Moist Forest). Except for two species (House Swallow Hirundo tahitica and Loten’s Sunbird Nectarinia lotenia) all the rest are found in this IBA, again confirming the high value of this site for bird conservation. Probably, these two species would also be found at this site if detailed studies are conducted.
OTHER KEY FAUNA: The Park is very rich in wildlife, 42 species of mammals, 52 species of reptiles, 35 species of amphibians and 149 species of butterflies have been reported from here till now (Anon. 2001).
Three species of primate recorded are Common Langur Semnopithecus entellus, the endemic and highly endangered Lion-tailed Macaque, Macaca silenus and the more common Bonnet Macaque Macaca radiata. Recently, Groves (2001) has upgraded different subspecies of Semnopithecus to full species status. According to this classification, possibly Blackfooted Gray Langur S. hypoleucos occurs here. This species is perhaps the most endangered primate in India.
Among the larger carnivores are the Tiger Panthera tigris, Leopard P.pardus, Wild dog Cuon alpinus, and Sloth Bear Melursus ursinus. Large herbivores include Asian Elephant Elephas maximus, Barking Deer Muntiacus muntjak, Chital Axis axis, Sambar Cervus unicolor, Gaur Bos frontalis and Wild Boar Sus scrofa. Mouse deer Moschiola meminna is also present, but difficult to see due to its secretive nature. Porcupine Hystrix indica and Indian hare Lepus nigricollis are present. Reptiles include the Western Ghats Gliding Lizard Draco dussumieri, King Cobra Ophiophagus hannah and Bamboo Pit Viper Trimeresurus gramineus.
Scientists in the Department of Post-graduate Studies and Research in Environmental Science, Kuvempu University, Karnataka have discovered a new species of frog, endemic to the Western Ghats, in the forests of the Kudremukh National Park. This species of Nyctibatrachus (night frog) has been named N. hussaini after the well known Indian naturalist, S. A. Hussain (Krishnamurthy et al. 2000).
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Wood Snipe Gallinago nemoricola||winter||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Nilgiri Woodpigeon Columba elphinstonii||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A2, A3||Vulnerable|
|Malabar Parakeet Psittacula columboides||-||2004||present||-||A2, A3||Least Concern|
|Malabar Grey Hornbill Ocyceros griseus||-||2004||present||-||A2, A3||Least Concern|
|White-bellied Treepie Dendrocitta leucogastra||-||2004||present||-||A2, A3||Least Concern|
|Grey-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus priocephalus||-||2004||present||-||A2, A3||Near Threatened|
|Broad-tailed Grassbird Schoenicola platyurus||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A2||Vulnerable|
|Rufous Babbler Turdoides subrufa||-||2004||present||-||A2, A3||Least Concern|
|Wynaad Laughingthrush Garrulax delesserti||-||2004||present||-||A2, A3||Least Concern|
|Garrulax jerdoni||resident||2004||present||-||A2, A3||Not Recognised|
|Brachypteryx major||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A2, A3||Not Recognised|
|Nilgiri Flycatcher Eumyias albicaudatus||resident||2004||present||-||A2, A3||Near Threatened|
|White-bellied Blue-flycatcher Cyornis pallipes||-||2004||present||-||A2, A3||Least Concern|
|Crimson-backed Sunbird Nectarinia minima||-||2004||present||-||A2, A3||Least Concern|
|2003||low||not assessed||not assessed|
|Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||wood and pulp plantations (includes afforestation) - agro-industry plantations||past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting||some of area/population (10-49%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||low|
|Energy production and mining||mining and quarrying||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||very rapid to severe deterioration||low|
|Pollution||agricultural & forestry effluents - soil erosion, sedimentation||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Pollution||industrial & military effluents - seepage from mining||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||very rapid to severe deterioration||low|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Kudremukh||National Park||56,328||is identical to site||56,328|
|Western Ghats||World Heritage Site||0||protected area contains site||56,328|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|nature conservation and research||-|
|Notes: Nature conservation and research|
|Notes: Tourism and recreation|
Acknowledgements Key contributor: Thejaswi Shivanand.
Anonymous (2001) Report on the impact of Iron Ore mining on the Flora And Fauna of Kudremukh National Park. Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Unpublished Report to the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India.
Groves, C. (2001) Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institute Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Hussain, S. A., Krishnamurthy, S. V., Rao, N. R., and Nagraj, S. (1999) An overview of some aspects of the biodiversity of the Kudremukh National Park, Karnataka. Chap.16. In: Biodiversity of the Western Ghats Complex of Karnataka. Resource Utilization and Sustainable Development. (Eds.S. A. Hussain & K. P. Achar). Biodiversity Initiative Trust, Mangalore. Pp. 181-225.
Krishamurthy, S. V., Manjunatha Reddy, A. H. and Gururaja, K. V. (2000) A new species of frog in the genus Nyctibatrachus (Anura: Ranidae) from Western Ghats, India. Current Science, 80 (7): 887-891.
Stattersfield, A. J., Crosby, M. J., Long, A. J. and Wedge, D. C. (1998) Endemic bird areas of the world- Priorities for biodiversity conservation. Birdlife Conservation series, No.7, Birdlife International.
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