email a friend
printable version
Location India, Karnataka
Central coordinates 74o 18.43' East  15o 32.57' North
IBA criteria A1, A2, A3
Area 60,000 ha
Altitude 60 - 810m
Year of IBA assessment 2004

Bombay Natural History Society

Site description Bhimgad forest lies in the districts of Belgaum and Uttar Kannada (North Kanara) in Karnataka. This region is part of the central Western Ghats, forming a large corridor as it is surrounded on all sides by sanctuaries and national parks, except to the east. The site is an excellent representative of Wet Evergreen Rain forests and is home to a diverse flora and fauna. Amidst these forests lie the ruins of an old fort Bhimgad of historical importance. Therefore, to give a single recognizable name to this unprotected forest area, the region is called Bhimgad forest. The Bhimgad forest is a part of one of the largest contiguous forest ranges in the Western Ghats. To the southeast lies Dandeli WLS, to south lies Anshi NP (both in Karnataka), the western border extends to Goa and is formed by Cotigao WLS, Netravali WLS, Bhagwan Mahavir WLS and Molem NP, which are contiguous with the rich evergreen forests extending up to Radhanagiri WLS through the Amboli Reserve Forest areas in Maharashtra. Castle Rock is a small village on the Miraj-Londa railway line. The site spreads over 5,820 ha of forested land around Castle Rock railway station and village of the same name. It is under the jurisdiction of the Karnataka Forest department. A railway line passes through the site, connecting Londha (Karnataka) with Collem (Goa) stations. There is a tar road within the site, which connects Castle Rock village with National Highway 4A and nearby villages. Castle Rock has a population of 1,500. Apart from this village, there are 11 small settlements with a total population of around 5,000. These are isolated agricultural patches in the forest. Blessed with good rainfall, Bhimgad and Castle Rock are covered with Wet Evergreen, Semi-evergreen Moist Tropical Forest and Moist Deciduous Forests, interspersed with grasslands, some degraded forest and cultivation. The vegetation has been described by Thakur et al. (1964) and Vartak (1966). The vegetation changes from Moist Deciduous to Semi-evergreen at higher elevations. At still higher elevations around crest lines, there are isolated patches of typical Tropical Evergreen Forest. These forests contain some endemic species such as Diospyros nigrescens, Connarus ritchiei, Jasminum malabaricum, Memecylon talbotianum and Myristica malabarica. The mountain range and valleys are crisscrossed with perennial streams, providing drinking water to millions of people. The Mahadayi river originates here and runs in to Goa as Mandovi, a major source of fresh water for the state.

Key Biodiversity 

AVIFAUNA: Preliminary observations revealed 184 bird species (Tejal V. pers. comm. 2003). As Bhimgad and Castle Rock are considered as one site, the following description is valid for both sites. The site falls in Biome-10 and is represented by the species of Indian Peninsula Tropical Moist Forest but the species of Biome-11, i.e. Indo-Malayan Tropical Dry Zone are also reported from the site. Stattersfield et al. (1998) have listed 16 restricted range or endemic species in the Western Ghats. Eight are found in Bhimgad and Castle Rock forest range. BirdLife International (undated) in their working document of the IBA programme have identified 15 species which occur in the Western Ghats and isolated areas of moist forests in the Eastern Ghats and elsewhere in peninsular India, what they call Biome-10 (Indian Peninsula Tropical Moist Forest). These species are considered as typical representative of this biome assemblage. Interestingly, 10 out of 15 Biome-10 species have been seen till now in this site. Longterm studies would reveal more species as the habitat is suitable for many species of this Biome. This site also has two Critically Endangered species of vultures and five Near Threatened species, as categorized by BirdLife International (2001). Recently, Rasmussen and Anderton (in press) have upgraded many subspecies to species level. Once such example is the Pompador Green Pigeon Treron pompadora. Ali and Ripley (1987) have identified five subspecies, including one found in the Western Ghats, Grey-fronted Green Pigeon T. pompadora affinis. This has now become full species, Treron affinis. It is not uncommon bird in the forest and well-wooded country in evergreen and wet deciduous biotopes, lowlands and up to about 1,200 m altitude. The presence of this species in Bhimgad and Castle Rock (and other IBAs of the Western Ghats) is worth noting.

OTHER KEY FAUNA: Bhimgad Forest (Castle Rock range) is covered with dense forest and harbours almost all the representative large vertebrates of the Western Ghats, except for the Asian Elephant Elephas maximus.

There are reports of Tiger Panthera tigris, and Leopard Panther pardus. Sloth Bear Melursus ursinus, Mouse Deer Moschiola meminna, and Slender Loris Loris tardigradus are other interesting species of this IBA site. Perhaps the most important species, for which Bhimgad is famous among bat specialists, is the colony of Wroughton’s Free-tailed Bat Otomops wroughtoni, an endangered species, till recently known to occur only in one cave in Barapede, half a kilometer from Talewadi in Belgaum (Bates and Harrison 1997). Less than 50 individuals are known to be present, making it one of the rarest mammals in the world.

The presence of King Cobra Ophiophagus hannah further proves the importance of Bhimgad as a relatively unspoiled tropical moist forest. There are some interesting arboreal reptiles, such as the Gliding Snake (Golden Tree Snake) Chrysopelea ornata and the Gliding Lizard Draco dussumieri.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis non-breeding  2004  present  A1  Critically Endangered 
Indian Vulture Gyps indicus non-breeding  2004  present  A1  Critically Endangered 
Malabar Parakeet Psittacula columboides resident  2004  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Malabar Grey Hornbill Ocyceros griseus resident  2004  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
White-bellied Treepie Dendrocitta leucogastra resident  2004  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Grey-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus priocephalus resident  2004  present  A2, A3  Near Threatened 
Rufous Babbler Turdoides subrufa resident  2004  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Wynaad Laughingthrush Garrulax delesserti resident  2004  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
White-bellied Blue-flycatcher Cyornis pallipes resident  2004  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Crimson-backed Sunbird Nectarinia minima resident  2004  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 

IBA Monitoring

2003 very high not assessed not assessed
Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data

Agriculture and aquaculture annual & perennial non-timber crops - shifting agriculture happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Agriculture and aquaculture livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Biological resource use hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target) happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Biological resource use logging & wood harvesting - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) very rapid to severe deterioration very high
Energy production and mining mining and quarrying happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) very rapid to severe deterioration low
Natural system modifications dams & water management/use - dams (size unknown) happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Natural system modifications fire & fire suppression - increase in fire frequency/intensity happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) moderate to rapid deterioration low
Residential and commercial development commercial and industrial development happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Transportation and service corridors roads and railroads happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) very rapid to severe deterioration low


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest   -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
agriculture -
Notes: Agriculture
energy production and mining -
Notes: Mining
nature conservation and research -
Notes: Nature conservation and research
tourism/recreation -
Notes: Tourism and recreation

Acknowledgements Key contributors: V. Tejal, V. R. Bhagwat, S. D. Apte, R. Ashtekar, M. Wadekar, Vishweshwar Madhav and S. Thejaswi.


Ali, S. and Ripley, S. D. (1987) Compact Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan (Second Edition). Oxford University Press, Delhi.

Bates, J. J. and Harrison, D. L. (1997) Bats of the Indian Subcontinent. Harrison Zoological Museum, England. Pp. xvi + Pp. 258.

BirdLife International (2001) Threatened Birds of Asia: The BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

BirdLife International (undated) Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in Asia: Project briefing book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K., unpublished.

Rasmussen, P. C. and Anderton, J. C. (in press) Birds of South Asia: the Ripley guide. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Stattersfield, A. J., Crosby, M. J., Long, A. J. and Wege, D. C. (1998) Endemic Bird Areas of the World: Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 7. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Thakar, C. V., Diva, V. V. and Subramanyana, M. C. (1964) Bee Keeping potentiality of the Castle Rock area. Indian Bee Journal 26: 4-15.

Vartak, V. D. (1966) Enumeration of plants from Gomantak, India: with a note on botanical excursions around Castle Rock. Maharashtra Association for the Cultivation of Sciences, Pune - 4. 132-149.

Contribute  Please click here to help BirdLife conserve the world's birds - your data for this IBA and others are vital for helping protect the environment.

Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Bhimgad Forests. Downloaded from on 20/10/2016

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife