|Central coordinates||75o 36.00' East 13o 33.87' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A2|
|Altitude||750 - 2,100m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description Bhadra Tiger Reserve is situated in the Malnad region of Karnataka, about 50 km east of the Western Ghats (Karanth 1982) in Chikmagalur and Shimoga districts. An imposing outspur of the Western Ghats called Bababudan or Bababudangiri hill range rises abruptly from the Deccan plateau, forming a rough crescent. Inside the ‘crater’ formed by them, the terrain is gently undulating (670-760 m) but the hills reach up to 1,200-1,500 m. One of these peaks, called Mullaiahna Giri is, at 1,900 m, the highest in Karnataka (Karanth 1982). Inside the ‘crater,’ another chain of hills called Kagemane Giri (= crow’s house mountain, in Kannada) further divide the valley. The Wildlife Sanctuary essentially comprises the Muthodi area lying inside the crescent and Lakkavalli area spread on the northern outer slopes of Bababudans (Karanth 1982). The Bhadra river and its tributaries, namely Somavahini, Thadabehalla and Odirayanahalla, drain the Reserve. A dam has been constructed across the Bhadra river near Lakkavalli, forming a vast c. 200 sq. km reservoir whose backwaters extend nearly 13 km inwards and lap the foot of the hill ranges (Karanth 1982). In addition to these major water sources, there are numerous seasonal and perennial streams. A part of the Reserve was declared as the Jagara Valley WLS by the Government of Mysore in 1951, covering an area of 20,059 ha. After a systematic survey and census of the entire area for animals, birds and plants, it was decided to increase the area under the Jagara Valley Sanctuary. The adjacent area reconstituted in 1974 as Bhadra WLS covering 49,246 ha, as per Section 18 of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, Bhadra was brought under Project Tiger in 1998 (Jain 2001). The forests of the valley floor and northern outer slopes are of wet deciduous type. The inner slopes are covered by sholas (Southern Montane Wet Temperate forests) interrupted by grassy downs (Southern Montane Wet Grassland). On the outer edges of Lakkavalli area, the forests tend to intergrade into Dry Deciduous type. On the whole, Muthodi area is wetter and more verdant than Lakkavalli (Karanth 1982). More than 120 species of trees have been identified in the Reserve.The important trees of the site include Tectona grandis, Terminalia tomentosa, T. paniculata, Pterocarpus marsupium, Ficus sp., Dillenia sp. and Lagerstroemia lanceolata. Dendrocalamus strictus and Bambusa arundinacea (bamboo) form the under-canopy (Karanth 1982). Where the canopy is closed, the forest floor is carpeted with wild ginger (Globba sp.). and where it is more open, the weed Eupatorium has spread. Low-lying areas of the valley floor are often marshy glades (locally called Hadlus), clothed with luxuriant growth of grasses.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Nilgiri Wood-pigeon Columba elphinstonii||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A1, A2||Vulnerable|
|Malabar Parakeet Psittacula columboides||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A2||Least Concern|
|Malabar Grey Hornbill Ocyceros griseus||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A2||Least Concern|
|White-bellied Treepie Dendrocitta leucogastra||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A2||Least Concern|
|Grey-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus priocephalus||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A2||Near Threatened|
|Rufous Babbler Turdoides subrufa||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A2||Least Concern|
|White-bellied Blue-flycatcher Cyornis pallipes||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A2||Least Concern|
|Crimson-backed Sunbird Nectarinia minima||-||2004||present [units unknown]||-||A2||Least Concern|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Bhadra||Sanctuary||49,246||is identical to site||49,246|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|nature conservation and research||-|
|Notes: Nature conservation and research|
Acknowledgements Key contributors: Ameen Ahmed and Nature Conservation Foundation.
BirdLife International (undated) Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in Asia: Project briefing book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K., unpublished.
Jain, P. (2001) Project Tiger Status Report, Project Tiger, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, New Delhi.
Karanth, U. (1982) Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary and its endangered ecosystem. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc.79 (1): 79-86.
Stattersfield, A. J., Crosby, M. J., Long, A. J. and Wege, D. C. (1998) Endemic Bird Areas of the World: Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 7. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
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