email a friend
printable version
Location India, Jammu & Kashmir
Central coordinates 78o 0.00' East  33o 18.00' North
IBA criteria A1
Area 10,000 ha
Altitude 0
Year of IBA assessment 2004

Bombay Natural History Society

Site description Tso Kar Basin is the basin of a former large freshwater lake (Chatterjee et al. 2002). It lies between the Zanskar range in the southwest and the Ladakh range in the northeast, south of the Indus river. It is called Tsokar, meaning white lake, because of the white salt efflorescence found on the margins due to the evaporation of highly saline water. The waterspread has contracted into two principal waterbodies, Startsapuk Tso, a freshwater lake of about 300 ha to the south, and Tso Kar itself, a hypersaline lake of 2,200 ha to the north. The lakes are frozen over from November to April. Startsapuk-Tso is fed by perennial springs and snow, and attains a maximum depth of 3 m in July and August, when it overflows northwards into Tso Kar. The basin is surrounded by peaks rising to over 6,000 m. The presence of freshwater mollusc Lymnea auricularia fossils proves that it was a freshwater lake in the past (Sharma 2000). The present lake is a remnant of a large freshwater lake of nearly 13,600 ha. In the less saline parts of the basin, the pools have aquatic vegetation including Potamogeton and Hydrilla spp. These plants die in winter, and form floating mats of vegetation in spring. The adjacent freshwater marshes and damp meadows support a mixture of Carex and Ranunculus spp. The arid steppe vegetation of the surrounding areas is dominated by species of Astragalus and Caragana.

Key Biodiversity 

AVIFAUNA: Tso Kar Basin is one of the most important breeding areas of the Black-necked Crane Grus nigricollis in India (Pfister 1998). O. Pfister (pers. comm. 2003) observed two breeding attempts, one in 1996 near its eastern shore (one egg), and again in 1997 at the northern shore (two eggs), but both nests were flooded due to rising water levels by the end of June. In 2002, a nest with two eggs was found in the northeastern part of Tso Kar Lake, but they were lost due to unknown reasons. A breeding pair near Startsapuktso (freshwater lake in the Tso Kar plains) has been more successful in raising two chicks each in 2000 and 2001, and was found breeding in 2002 also (Pankaj Chandan pers. comm. 2002). This IBA is also the major breeding area for Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus, Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus, Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea, Brown-headed Gull Larus brunnicephalus and Common Tern Sterna hirundo. During autumn migration, the Tso Kar Basin becomes an assembling place for local breeding birds as well as a major staging spot for migrants, and congregations of thousands of birds can be observed.

OTHER KEY FAUNA: Wild Ass Equus kiang and Tibetan Argali Ovis ammon hodgsoni forage on the slopes and meadows, while Tibetan Wolf Canis lupus and Red Fox Vulpes vulpes occur in the surrounding plains. In addition, evidence of the endangered Snow Leopard Uncia uncia has been recorded.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Black-necked Crane Grus nigricollis breeding  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 

IBA Monitoring

2013 medium not assessed negligible

Agriculture and aquaculture livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Biological resource use fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Invasive & other problematic species, genes & diseases problematic native species/diseases - unspecified species happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) no or imperceptible deterioration low

Wetlands (inland)   0 0 good (> 90%) good (> 90%) favourable

Little/none of site covered (<10%)  No management planning has taken place  Unknown  negligible 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Tso Kar Sanctuary 0 protected area contained by site 0  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Wetlands (inland)   -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
nature conservation and research -
Notes: Nature conservation and research
tourism/recreation -
Notes: Tourism

Acknowledgements Key contributors: Otto Pfister and Rauf Zargar.


Chatterjee, A., Chandan, P., Gautam, P. and Droz, B. H. (2002) High Altitude Wetlands of Ladakh: A Conservation Initiative. WWF-India, New Delhi. Pp. 38.

Pfister, O. (1998) Breeding ecology and conservation of the Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis) in Ladakh/India. University of Hull, Hull, UK.

Pfister, O. (2000) Biodiversity of the High Altitude Wetlands and their Importance for Migratory Waterfowl, Paper presented at the National Consultation Workshop: Conservation of High Altitude Wetlands. WWF-India, Leh.

Sharma, V. P. (2000) Geology of the Ladakh Region, J & K State with special reference to High Altitude Lakes. Paper presented at National Consultation Workshop: Conservation of High Altitude Wetlands. WWF-India, Leh.

Contribute  Please click here to help BirdLife conserve the world's birds - your data for this IBA and others are vital for helping protect the environment.

Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Tso Kar Basin. Downloaded from on 27/10/2016

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife