|Location||India, Jammu & Kashmir|
|Central coordinates||76o 12.50' East 33o 37.20' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A2, A3|
|Altitude||1,700 - 4,800m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description This high altitude national park is named after the old town of Kistwar, in Doda district. It is located c. 40 km northeast of Kistwar. Like most of the protected areas in Kashmir, Kistwar NP forms the catchment area of many rivers and streams (nullahs). The important ones are Kiyar, Nanth and Kibber nallahs, all draining southwest into Marau river which joins the Chenab river just above Kistwar town. The Marau drains the western slopes of the Bramah and Nun Kun ranges. The Park is bounded to the north by the Rinnay river, south by Kibber Nullah catchment, to the east by the main divide of the Great Himalayas and to the west by Marau river. The terrain is mostly precipitous, rough and rugged. Moderate to very steep slopes are seen, mostly covered with thick forests. The slopes are broken by rocky cliffs, which form ideal habitats for the Himalayan Ibex Capra sibirica. Due to its latitude, high altitudes, high ridges and narrow, deep forest-covered valleys, the climate is extreme. Winters are extremely severe, and in some areas winter rains are common, although most precipitation is in the form of snow. Strong winds enhance the extreme cold in winter. Kistwar NP has 13 main vegetation types, from alpine grasslands, to mixed coniferous forests, to Oak-Fir forests. Broadleaf forest occurs in the nullahs and cool damp aspects. Silver Fir Abies pindrow occurs in pure stands, but also mixed with Deodar Cedrus deodara and Kail. In general, Silver Fir and Spruce Picea wallichiana, mixed with Cedar Cedrus deodara and Blue Pine Pinus griffithii, are predominant from 2,400 m to 3,000 m. The main forest types are: Moist Deodar Forest, Western Mixed Coniferous Forests, Moist Temperate Deciduous Forest, Low-level Blue Pine Forest, West Himalayan Upper Oak Forest, Chilgoza Pine Forest, Dry Deodar Forests, Parrotia Scrub Forests, West Himalayan High Level Dry Blue Pine Forest, West Himalayan Sub-alpine Birch/Fir Forest, Sub-alpine Pasture, Birch- Rhododendron Scrub Forest and Alpine Pastures (Anon. undated).
AVIFAUNA: No detailed study has been conducted on the avifauna of the Park. Scott et al. (1988) during their ‘Kashmir Expedition’ have recorded 78 species of birds, including the Himalayan or Impeyan Monal Lophophorus impejanus and Koklass Pucrasia macrolopha. The globally threatened Western Tragopan Tragopan melanocephalus has also been reported. Recently, an injured bird was found by the forest officials which was later released (Department of Wildlife Protection, undated). M. M. Baba (pers. comm. 2003) has prepared a checklist of 115 species, which includes many species found in Biome-5 (Eurasian High Montane - Alpine and Tibetan) and Biome-7 (Sino-Himalayan Temperate Forest).
OTHER KEY FAUNA: Kistwar is famous for its high altitude fauna, from the elusive Snow Leopard Uncia uncia to the commoner Himalayan Ibex. During a census in 1999 by the staff of the forest department, 612 ibex were found in Kibber, Nath and Kiyar areas. Brown Bear Ursus arctos occurs mainly in sub-alpine and alpine regions, while the Eurasian Black Bear Ursus thibetanus is found in the lower reaches, where the Leopard Panthera pardus is also found. The Himalayan Musk Deer Moschus chrysogaster, Indian Muntjak Muntiacus muntjak, Serow Nemorhaedus sumatraensis, Goral Nemorhaedus goral and Wild Boar Sus scrofa are some of the ungulates. The Kashmir Stag or Hangul Cervus elaphus hanglu is also reported, especially during winter. Bharal or Blue Sheep Pseudois nayaur is found in the alpine regions, where it is the main prey of the Snow Leopard. There are reports of Markhor Capra falconeri. Common Langur has now been split into seven species (Groves 2001). Of these, the Himalayan Grey Langur Semnopithecus entellus ajax is found in Kistwar.
The most important areas for wildlife are considered to be the Kiar and Kibber valleys. Hangul is reported to occur in Kiar, but only in the severest of winters when animals are thought to migrate from the Dachigam, 100-150 km to the northwest. Goral is reported to occur around Sondar and Sirshi, Ibex in the Bramah area and snow leopard in Upper Kiar (Scott et al. 1988).
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Western Tragopan Tragopan melanocephalus||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A2, A3||Vulnerable|
|2003||medium||not assessed||not assessed|
|Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||low|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Biological resource use||hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target)||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Biological resource use||hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - persecution/control||likely in short term (within 4 years)||small area/few individuals (<10%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||low|
|Biological resource use||logging & wood harvesting - unintentional effects: large scale||past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting||some of area/population (10-49%)||very rapid to severe deterioration||low|
|Human intrusions and disturbance||work and other activities||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Natural system modifications||dams & water management/use - large dams||likely in long term (beyond 4 years)||some of area/population (10-49%)||very rapid to severe deterioration||medium|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Kistwar||National Park||40,000||is identical to site||40,000|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|nature conservation and research||-|
|Notes: Nature conservation and research|
Acknowledgements Key contributors: M. S. Bacha, Rahul Kaul, M. M. Baba and Peter Garson..
Bacha, M. S. (1986) Snow leopard recovery plan for Kistwar High Altitude National Park, Jammu and Kashmir State, 1986-87 to 1989-90. Department of Wildlife Protection, Srinagar. Pp. 51
Anonymous (undated) Census Report of Ibex (Capra sibirica) in Kistwar High Altitude National Park: Jammu and Kashmir State- 1999-2000. Department of Wildlife Protection, Srinagar.
Gaston, A. J. (1982) A national park for Kistwar. Hornbill (4): 10-14.
Groves, C. (2001) Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C.
Kurt, F. (1976) Study plan for IUCN/WWF Project No. 1103 (22-4): Hangul, India- ecological study to identify conservation needs. Unpublished report. Pp. 20.
Scott, G., Rowcliffe, M., Stoneman, J. and Watts, S. (1988) University of Newcastle Kashmir Expedition 1988. Final report. Unpublished. Pp. 40
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