|Location||India, Jammu & Kashmir|
|Central coordinates||79o 0.00' East 32o 48.00' North|
|Altitude||4,250 - 4,350m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description These marshes are located west and north of Hanle village in Ladakh, near the border with China. They are partly state owned and partly under the Hanle Buddhist monastery. The habitat is a complex of fast flowing streams, stagnant pools, saline marshes, seasonally flooded marshes, and bogs along the Hanle river, 45 km south of its confluence with the Indus river. The wetlands are frozen from November to April and are fed by snowmelt in summer. The freshwater pools shelter species such as Hydrilla, Myriophyllum, Potamogeton, and an edible aquatic lichen
AVIFAUNA: The area is an important breeding ground for various waterfowl including the Black-necked crane Grus nigricollis. There is a recent report of three breeding pairs of Black-necked crane in the Hanle marshes and one in Lal Pahri (Rauf Zargar pers. comm. 2003). This site is also an important breeding area for the Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea and the Lesser Sand Plover Charadrius mongolus. During autumn migration many birds pass through this site, including the globally threatened Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga. It uses the plain as the last staging site before crossing the Himalayan range (Pfister 2001).
OTHER KEY FAUNA: The slopes above Hanle plain are an important habitat of Tibetan Wild Ass or Kiang Equus kiang. In 1995-96 the first Tibetan Gazelle Procapra picticaudata was seen here after 35 years of regional extinction. The Tibetan Wolf Canis lupus chanco and Red Fox Vulpes vulpes are also found. Besides, Weasel Mustela sp. Blue Sheep or Bharal Pseudois nayaur, Argali Ovis ammon, Marmot Marmota sp and Woolly hare Lepus oiostolus are commonly found.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Greater Spotted Eagle Clanga clanga||winter||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Black-necked Crane Grus nigricollis||breeding||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|2003||high||not assessed||not assessed|
|Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||low|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||wood and pulp plantations (includes afforestation) - agro-industry plantations||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||high|
|Human intrusions and disturbance||war, civil unrest and military exercises||happening now||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||no or imperceptible deterioration||low|
|Invasive & other problematic species, genes & diseases||invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - named species||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||high|
|Residential and commercial development||housing and urban areas||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||low|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Artificial - terrestrial||-|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|Notes: Local recreation (no tourist permit is issued to this area)|
|Notes: Water management|
Acknowledgements Key contributors: Otto Pfister and Rauf Zargar.
Pfister, O. (2001) Birds recorded during visits to Ladakh, India, from 1994 to 1997. Oriental Bird Club, London, Forktail 17: 81-90.
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Recommended citation BirdLife International (2015) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Hanle Plains (Hanle River marshes). Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/11/2015
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