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Location India, Jammu & Kashmir
Central coordinates 74o 51.00' East  34o 12.00' North
IBA criteria A1, A2, A3
Area 17,125 ha
Altitude 1,642 - 4,289m
Year of IBA assessment 2004

Bombay Natural History Society



Site description Dachigam National Park, about 20 km from Srinagar, was established in 1910 as a hunting reserve by the Maharaja of Kashmir. After the merger of Jammu and Kashmir with independent India in 1948, the management of the Park was handed over to the Fisheries Department and subsequently to the Forest Department. The Park is a rectangular forest, 141 sq. km in extent, 22.5 km long and 8 km wide. It is divided into Lower Dachigam in the west and Upper Dachigam in the east. The Park is the catchment area of the Dal lake, which supplies water to Srinagar. The Dagwan river originates in the higher reaches of the Park, and flows through rocky and forested slopes before draining into the Dal Lake. The importance of Dachigam as a catchment area of the Dal lake was recognized by the erstwhile Maharaja nearly a century ago, who moved ten villages to protect the forest cover, hence its name Dachigam (dachi = ten, gam= villages). The Himalayan mountain ranges including Dachigam National Park are a part of the great Zanskar Range which forms the northwest division of the central Himalayan mountain. This range bifurcates near Kulu in Himachal Pradesh and ends at the high peaks of Nun and Kun (Naqash 2001-2002). The fold of this mountain range has undulating narrow gullies, and broader outer gullies locally known as ‘Nar’. There are two steep ridges, one rising from near Harwan Reservoir and the other to the east of New Thir, which form the natural boundaries of the National Park. These mountains have a variety of vegetation types supported by different microclimatic conditions prevailing due to the changing aspects of the undulating terrain. The Dagwan river originates from Marsar Lake and is fed throughout its course by a complex of mountain streams draining through numerous gullies (Kurt 1978) till it drains into Harwan Reservoir. The largest extant population, about 300 individuals, of the highly endangered Kashmir Stag or Hangul Cervus elaphus hanglu is found in Dachigam. Owing to protection for the last 90 years, the vegetation of Dachigam NP presents a strong contrast with that outside. Despite the fact that there is some pressure of graziers in the Park, the vegetation is more or less intact. The mountain slopes of Dagwan valley and the catchment areas of various nullahs sustain the almost pristine vegetation. Six major types of vegetation have been recognized: (i) Alpine pastures and alpinescrub above 3,300 m consisting of Junipersand Betula utilis; (ii) Rock faces supporting grasses and Pinus griffithii; (iii) Coniferous forests of Pinus griffithii, Cedrus deodara, Abies pindrow and Picea smithiana; (iv) Broadleaf woodlands of Acer sp., Aesculus coryplus and Parrotia between 2,000 and 2,800 m; (v) Grassland patches beween broadleaf and coniferous forests; and (vi) Riverine forests mainly with species of Aesculus, Juglans, Celtis, Populus, Salix, Robinia, Morus, Quercus and Rhus.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis non-breeding  2004  present  A1  Critically Endangered 
Eastern Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca winter  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Tytler's Leaf-warbler Phylloscopus tytleri breeding  2004  present  A2, A3  Near Threatened 
Kashmir Flycatcher Ficedula subrubra breeding  2004  present  A1, A2, A3  Vulnerable 
Orange Bullfinch Pyrrhula aurantiaca 2004  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Dachigam National Park 17,125 is identical to site 17,125  

Habitats

IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest   -
Shrubland   -
Grassland   -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
nature conservation and research -
Notes: Nature conservation and research
tourism/recreation -
Notes: Ecotourism and nature education
water management -
Notes: Watershed conservation

Acknowledgements Key contributors: Rashid Y. Naquash, M. S. Bacha, Shafiq Ahmed Khan and Khursheed Ahmed.

References 

Ahmad, K. (1999) Birds of Dachigam National Park. Newsletter for Birdwatchers 39(2): 22-24.

Bates, R. S. P. and Lowther, E. H. N. (1952) Breeding birds of Kashmir. Oxford University Press, Delhi.

BirdLife International (2001) Threatened Birds of Asia: The BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

BirdLife International (undated) Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in Asia: Project briefing book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K., unpublished.

Department of Wildlife Protection (1985) Ecological cum management plan for Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir State 1985- 90. Department of Wildlife Protection, Srinagar. Pp. 56.

Groves, C. (2001) Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Gruisen, J. van (1983) The hangul, Dachigam’s endangered deer. Sanctuary (Asia) 3: 114-131.

Holloway (1970) The Hangul in Dachigam: a census. Oryx 10: 373-382.

Hussain, S. A. (1989) Bird Migration Project: Annual Report 1988-1989. Bombay Natural History Society, Bombay. Pp. 1-62.

Katti, M.V. (1989) Bird communities of lower Dachigam Valley, Kashmir. M.Sc. Thesis, Saurashtra University, Rajkot. Pp. 58

Kurt, F. (1978) Kashmir deer (Cervus elaphus hanglu) in Dachigam. In: Threatened deer. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Pp. 87-109.

Kurt, F. (1979) IUCN/WWF Project No. 1103 (22-4): Hangul, India - ecological study to identify conservation needs. Final report (draft). WWF, Gland, Switzerland. Pp. 23.

Naqash, R. Y. (2001-02) “Eco- Development around National Parks & Sanctuaries”, of Dachigam National Park. Department of Wildlife Protection, Jammu & Kashmir Government, Srinagar.

Rodgers, W. A. and Panwar, H. S. (1988) Planning a wildlife protected area network in India. 2 vols. Project FO: IND/82/003. FAO, Dehra Dun.

Stattersfield, A. J., Crosby, M. J., Long, A. J. and Wege, D. C. (1998) Endemic Bird Areas of the World: Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 7. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Zarri, A. A. and Rahmani A. R, (in press) Wintering records, ecology and behaviour of Kashmir flycatcher (Ficedula subrubra Hartert & Steinbacher). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc.

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Dachigam National Park. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/07/2014

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