|Location||India, Jammu & Kashmir|
|Central coordinates||78o 45.00' East 33o 35.05' North|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description The Chushul Marshes lie within Changthan, east and west of Chushul village near the Chinese border. The habitats consist of shallow ponds, marshes, borax plains and wet meadows in a broad sandy valley. Springs and streams flowing down into the Valley from the Ladakh range create the ponds and marshes. Some streams terminate on the sandy plains in stagnant pools which become more saline as they evaporate. Others carry enough water to flow into the Pangong Tso. Most of the ponds and marshes remain frozen from November to March. The principal vegetation consists of species of Hydrilla, Myriophyllum in the ponds and Carex, other sedges and grasses in the marshes. The surrounding steppe is dominated by Caragana.
AVIFAUNA: The wetland is an important breeding area for several species of waterfowl, such as the Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus, Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea, Lesser Sand Plover Charadrius mongolus, Common Redshank Tringa totanus and Common Tern Sterna hirundo. Three pairs of Black-necked Crane Grus nigricollis inhabit the Chushul marshes, of which two pairs are consistently breeding at Tsigul Tso and Tso Nyak (Hussain and Pandav 2001; Rauf Zargar pers. comm. 2003). Some pairs of Barheaded Geese Anser indicus also breed here. The Tibetan Sandgrouse Syrrhaptes tibetanus, and Tibetan Partridge Perdix hodgsoniae representing Biome-5 occur on the surrounding dry plains.
OTHER KEY FAUNA: The other important fauna of the site include Tibetan Wild Ass Equus kiang. Tibetan Argali Ovis ammon, Blue Sheep or Bharal Pseudois nayaur and Tibetan Gazelle Procapra picticaudata (Rauf Zargar pers. comm. 2003).
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Black-necked Crane Grus nigricollis||breeding||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|2003||high||not assessed||not assessed|
|Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Biological resource use||gathering terrestrial plants - unintentional effects (species being assessed is not the target)||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Human intrusions and disturbance||recreational activities||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Human intrusions and disturbance||work and other activities||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Invasive & other problematic species, genes & diseases||invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - named species||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||high|
|Natural system modifications||dams & water management/use - abstraction of surface water (agricultural use)||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Natural system modifications||other ecosystem modifications||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Pollution||agricultural & forestry effluents - soil erosion, sedimentation||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Pollution||domestic & urban waste water - run-off||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Pollution||garbage & solid waste||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Residential and commercial development||housing and urban areas||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|nature conservation and research||-|
|Notes: Nature conservation and research|
|Notes: Urban settlements|
Acknowledgements Key contributors: Rauf Zargar, Bivash Pandav and S. A. Hussain.
Hussain, S. A. and Pandav, B (2001) Bench mark ecological status of wetlands of Ladakh, Study report – 2001. Wildlife Insitute of India, Dehra Dun. India, Pp. 1-13.
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Recommended citation BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Chushul marshes. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/07/2016
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