|Location||India, Himachal Pradesh|
|Central coordinates||76o 3.00' East 32o 0.00' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A4iii|
|Altitude||335 - 436m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description The Pong reservoir, also called the Maharana Pratap Sagar, was created in 1976 by the damming of the River Beas in the foothills of the Himalayas on the northern edge of the Indo-Gangetic plain. It contains several deforested islands which attracts a large number of waterbirds. The northern edge is very flat, with mudflats and wet grasslands and attracts major concentrations of birds. Pong Dam was basically an irrigation reservoir but when a large number of birds started coming regularly to the wetland, the reservoir was declared a bird sanctuary in 1983. There is some submerged vegetation, but the shoreline does not support much emergent vegetation due to the pronounced seasonal changes in water level. There is an extensive swamp with reed beds and grasslands in the seepage area below the dam (Gaston 1985, 1986). The surrounding hillsides still support some Mixed Deciduous and Chir Pine Pinus roxburghii forest.
AVIFAUNA: The lake is an important wintering ground for waterfowl. About 10,000 ducks were recorded in December 1985, with Mallard Anas platyrhynchos predominant, and smaller numbers of Northern Pintail A. acuta, Common Teal A. crecca and Common Pochard Aythya ferina (Gaston 1985; Gaston and Pandey 1987). Two Rednecked Grebes Podiceps griseigena, and several Great Blackheaded Gulls Larus ichthyaetus, a species that is fairly uncommon away from the coast in India were also observed. Waders such as Greenshank Tringa nebularia, Green sandpiper T. ochropus, Common sandpiper T. hypoleucos and Temmink’s stint Calidris temminkii occur in considerable numbers. A great variety of raptors were also recorded, including Osprey Pandion haliaetus, Pallas’s Fish-Eagle Haliaeetus leucoryphus, Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus and Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax. Gaston (1985) observed a total of 103 species in the area, but more than 220 species have since been recorded (Pandey 1989). Recent counts have shown that the concentration of wintering waterfowl has sharply increased to over 60,000 and over 75,000 in 2002 and 2003 respectively. The most numerous species are Northern Pintail [25,000], Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus [10,000], Common Teal [>6000], Eurasian Wigeon [>6000], Common Pochard [>5000] and Great Cormorant [>4500] (J. W. den Besten pers. comm.2003). Most of these numbers are much above the 1% population threshold recently described by Wetlands International (2002). For instance, Wetlands International estimates the Bar-headed Goose population to be between 52,000 and 60,000. With 10,000 present in this IBA site, it means that almost 20% of the population of this species occurs in Pong Dam! No other IBA site in India holds such a huge population of this species. The lake sustains some breeding birds. There are up to several dozen pairs of Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax, Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica, Little Tern Sterna albifrons, Yellow-wattled Lapwing Vanellus malabaricus and large numbers of River Tern Sterna aurantia, and Red-wattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus. A few pairs of Sarus Crane Grus antigone breed in the vicinity. The outflow area of Shah Nehar barrage sustains breeding populations of Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus, Purple Swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio, Purple Heron Ardea purpurea, Cinnamon Bittern Ixobrychus cinnamomeus, Yellow Bittern I. sinensis and White-tailed Stonechat Saxicola leucura.
OTHER KEY FAUNA: In recent years, Golden Jackal Canis aureus, Himalayan Yellowthroated Marten Martes flavigula, Small Indian Civet Viverricula indica, Wild Boar Sus scrofa and Nilgai Boselaphus tragocamelus have been reported, the last two species in the outflow area (J. W.
den Besten pers. comm. 2003). Reptiles include the Common Cobra Naja naja, Python Python molurus and Common Monitor Varanus bengalensis. Fish species found are Mahseer Tor tor, Mallip Wallago attu and Sole Ophiocaphalus marulius.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis||non-breeding||2004||present||-||A1||Critically Endangered|
|Slender-billed Vulture Gyps tenuirostris||non-breeding||2004||present||-||A1||Critically Endangered|
|A4iii Species group - waterbirds||unknown||2004||20,000 individuals||unknown||A4iii|
|2003||medium||not assessed||not assessed|
|Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||low|
|Biological resource use||fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Biological resource use||gathering terrestrial plants - unintentional effects (species being assessed is not the target)||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Biological resource use||hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - unintentional effects (species is not the target)||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||no or imperceptible deterioration||low|
|Human intrusions and disturbance||recreational activities||likely in long term (beyond 4 years)||small area/few individuals (<10%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||low|
|Pollution||agricultural & forestry effluents - herbicides and pesticides||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Pollution||garbage & solid waste||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Residential and commercial development||tourism and recreation areas||likely in short term (within 4 years)||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Pong Dam Lake||Sanctuary||30,729||is identical to site||30,729|
|Pong Dam Lake||Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar)||15,662||unknown||0|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|nature conservation and research||-|
|Notes: Nature conservation and research|
|Notes: Tourism and recreation|
|Notes: Water management|
Acknowledgements Key contributors: Jan Willem den Besten, Sanjeeva Pandey and Murari Thakur..
Gaston, A. J. (1985) Report on a visit to Pong Dam Lake, 2-3 December. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa. Unpublished. Pp 8.
Gaston, A. J. (1986) West Himalayan wildlife survey. Report on activities in 1985. Unpublished. Pp 18.
Gaston, A. J. and Pandey, S. (1987) Sighting of red-necked grebes on Pong Dam Lake, Himachal Pradesh. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 84: 676- 677.
Pandey, S. (1989) The birds of Pong Dam Lake Sanctuary. Tiger Paper 16(2): 20-26.
Singh, S., Kothari, A. and Pande, P. (Eds) (1990) Directory of national parks and sanctuaries in Himachal Pradesh: management status and profiles. Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi. Pp 164.
Wetlands International (2002) Waterbirds Population Estimates: Third Edition. Wetlands International Global Series No. 12. Wageningen, The Netherlands.
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