|Location||India, Himachal Pradesh|
|Central coordinates||76o 59.00' East 31o 16.13' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A2|
|Altitude||575 - 1,985m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary, located in Shimla and Solan districts, is part of the catchment area of the Sutlej river. It is bounded to the north by the Sutlej, and to the south by a mountain ridge. The Sanctuary comprises a short section of the southern slopes of the Sutlej Valley, with steep terrain. Places of religious interest include the Harsingh Temple (Singh et al. 1990). The Sanctuary may be one of the most important sites in Himachal Pradesh for Cheer pheasant Catreus wallichii, and the only site present within the Sutlej catchment. Seven species of Galliformes have been reported from this area (Mishra 1996). Chir Pine Pinus roxburghii and Ban Oak Quercus leucotrichophora forests, and subtropical Euphorbia scrub are the major vegetation types (Mishra 1996). The slopes are sparsely forested with Chir Pine and Ban Oak, and mostly dominated by grassy tracts, often extending continuously from the ridge-tops down to about 1,000 m (Garson 1983).
AVIFAUNA: Not much work has been done on the bird life of this interesting site, covering tracts of Himalayan Sub-tropical forest. Mishra (1996) during his studies on the Goral from November 1992 to May 1993, counted 106 species of birds, including the globally threatened Cheer Pheasant. He also recorded Kaleej Pheasant Lophura leucomelana and Koklass Pucrasia macrolopha. Recently, Shah et al. (2002) have worked on the Black Francolin Francolinus francolinus, a common Galliform. In this IBA, the main biome is Sino-Himalayan Subtropical Forest (Biome-8), which occurs between 1,000 to 2,000 m. Nine species of this of biome have been listed by Mishra (1996). None of them are of conservation concern. This IBA lies in the Western Himalayas Endemic Bird Area (EBA- 128). As we do not have a detailed checklist of this site, it is likely that there would be some more Restricted Range species, especially small forest birds, than we know as of now. More detailed work is needed on the bird fauna of this site. Presently, we consider this as a Data Deficient site.
OTHER KEY FAUNA: The mammalian fauna includes Leopard Panthera pardus, which is the top predator (Mishra 1993). Asiatic Black Bear Ursus thibetanus, Golden Jackal Canis aureus, Common Palm Civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, Himalayan Palm Civet Paguma larvata, Yellow-throated Marten Martes flavigula, and Jungle Cat Felis chaus are other carnivores. Sambar Cervus unicolor, Barking Deer Muntiacus muntjak, Goral Nemorhaedus goral and Wild Boar Sus scrofa represent the ungulates.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A2||Vulnerable|
|White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis||non-breeding||2004||present||-||A1||Critically Endangered|
|2003||high||not assessed||not assessed|
|Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming||happening now||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||high|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - nomadic grazing||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Biological resource use||gathering terrestrial plants - unintentional effects (species being assessed is not the target)||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Biological resource use||hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target)||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||high|
|Biological resource use||hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - persecution/control||likely in short term (within 4 years)||small area/few individuals (<10%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||low|
|Biological resource use||logging & wood harvesting - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Human intrusions and disturbance||recreational activities||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Natural system modifications||dams & water management/use - abstraction of surface water (domestic use)||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||no or imperceptible deterioration||low|
|Natural system modifications||fire & fire suppression - increase in fire frequency/intensity||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Residential and commercial development||commercial and industrial development||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||very rapid to severe deterioration||low|
|Residential and commercial development||housing and urban areas||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Majathal||Sanctuary||4,000||is identical to site||4,000|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Artificial - terrestrial||-|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|Notes: Collection of timber, fuelwood, fodder and minor forest produce|
|nature conservation and research||-|
|Notes: Nature conservation and research|
|Notes: Tourism and recreation|
Acknowledgements Key contributor: Charudutt Mishra.
Garson, P. J. (1983) The cheer pheasant Catreus wallichii in Himachal Pradesh, Western Himalayas: an update. WPA Journal 8: 29-39.
Mishra, C. (1993) Habitat use of Goral in Majathal Harsang Wildlife Sanctuary. M.Sc. dissertation. Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun.
Mishra, C. (1996) Pheasants and other birds of Majathal Harsang Wildlife Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh, India. Forktail 12: 1-8.
Shah, J. N., Kalsi, R. S., Kaul, R. and Khan, J. A. (2002) Group size, Sex ratio and Habitat use of Black Francolin Francolinus francolinus in Majathal Harsang Wildlife Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh, India. Proc. National Symposium on Galliformes. AVC College, Mayaladuturai. Pp. 58-63.
Singh, S., Kothari, A. and Pande, P. (Eds) (1990) Directory of national parks and sanctuaries in Himachal Pradesh: management status and profiles. Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi. Pp 164.
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