|Location||India, Himachal Pradesh|
|Central coordinates||77o 21.50' East 31o 58.95' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A2|
|Altitude||1,800 - 4,833m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description This small Sanctuary is contiguous with the Great Himalayan National Park, another IBA of Himachal Pradesh. The terrain is steep, with deep valleys and rocky cliffs. The Sanctuary has an altitudinal variation from 1,800 m to nearly 5,000 m. There are two main mountain peaks, Satupurna (3,519 m) and Shacha (3,542 m). The Parvati river flows north of the Sanctuary. There are lakes and natural springs of religious and historical importance at Khirganga and Mantalai on the outskirts of the Sanctuary. There is also a temple and a gurudwara at Manikaran, adjacent to the Sanctuary (Singh et al. 1990). Owing to its great altitudinal variation, seven forest types are present in this Sanctuary. Based on the classification of Champion and Seth (1968), they are Alpine Pastures, West Himalayan Sub-Alpine Forest, Kharsu Oak Forest, Moist Temperate Deciduous Forest, Western Mixed Coniferous Forest, Moist Deodar Forest and Ban Oak Forest. The Moist Temperate Deciduous Forest is one of the few undisturbed fragments of this type extant in Himachal Pradesh.
AVIFAUNA: Good populations of two globally threatened species i.e. Western Tragopan Tragopan melanocephalus and Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii are found in this Sanctuary, due to which it was selected as an IBA. It also has many biome species. No detailed work has been done in this area on birds, but Singh et al. (1990) provided a preliminary list of 80 bird species recorded in the Sanctuary. This site lies in the Western Himalayas Endemic Bird Area (EBA). In this EBA, 11 Restricted Range species have been listed, three are found in this IBA. According to BirdLife International (undated) classification of biomes, this site should come under Biome-7 (Sino-Himalayan Temperate Forest), occurring from 1,800 m to 3,600 m, and Biome-5 (Eurasian High Montane), which occurs above 3,600 m. As we do not have good bird checklist, it is not known how many biome species assemblages are found in this IBA. This site certainly needs more detailed work to be done on bird distribution, abundance and densities.
OTHER KEY FAUNA: The most important mammal of this Sanctuary is the highly elusive and rare Snow Leopard Uncia uncia. Its natural prey are Blue Sheep Pseudois nayaur, Ibex Capra sibirica, Musk Deer Moschus chrysogaster and Himalayan Tahr Hemitragus jemlahicus. At lower elevations, Leopard Panthera pardus is present, which mainly feeds on Goral Nemorhaedus goral, Barking Deer Muntiacus muntjak, and Serow Nemorhaedus sumatraensis. Both Uncia uncia and P. pardus also prey regularly on domestic animals.
Brown Bear Ursus arctos is generally found above 3,500 m in the sub-alpine and alpine regions, while the Asiatic Black Bear Ursus thibetanus is seen in temperate forests between 1,600 m and 3,500 m. Tibetan Wolf Canis lupus chanco is also reported from the alpine zone. The smaller predators are Yellow-throated Marten Martes flavigula, Himalayan Palm Civet Paguma larvata, Himalayan Weasel Mustela sibirica, Indian Fox Vulpes vulpes, and Golden Jackal Canis aureus. The Common Giant Flying Squirrel Petaurista petaurista is found in temperate forests at lower elevations in the Sanctuary (Singh et al. 1990).
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Western Tragopan Tragopan melanocephalus||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A2||Vulnerable|
|Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A2||Vulnerable|
|White-cheeked Tit Aegithalos leucogenys||resident||2004||present||-||A2||Least Concern|
|2003||high||not assessed||not assessed|
|Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||low|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - nomadic grazing||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||no or imperceptible deterioration||low|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming||happening now||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||slow but significant deterioration||high|
|Biological resource use||gathering terrestrial plants - unintentional effects (species being assessed is not the target)||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Biological resource use||hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - persecution/control||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||low|
|Biological resource use||logging & wood harvesting - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Human intrusions and disturbance||work and other activities||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Natural system modifications||dams & water management/use - dams (size unknown)||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Natural system modifications||fire & fire suppression - increase in fire frequency/intensity||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||high|
|Residential and commercial development||housing and urban areas||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Kanawar||Sanctuary||5,400||is identical to site||5,400|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|nature conservation and research||-|
|Notes: Nature conservation and research|
|Notes: Tourism and recreation|
|Notes: Human habitation; Urban transport|
|Notes: Water management|
Acknowledgements Key contributor: Sanjeeva Pandey.
BirdLife International (undated) Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in Asia: Project briefing book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K., unpublished.
Champion, H. G. and Seth, S. K. (1968) A revised survey of forest types of India, Govt. of India Press, Delhi. Pp. 403.
Singh, S., Kothari, A. and Pande, P. (Eds) (1990) Directory of national parks and sanctuaries in Himachal Pradesh: management status and profiles. Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi. Pp 164.
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Recommended citation BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Kanawar Wildlife Sanctuary. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 07/02/2016
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