|Central coordinates||70o 48.75' East 21o 17.50' North|
|Altitude||150 - 642m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description Gir National Park and Sanctuary is one of the oldest sanctuaries of India and is famed for being the remaining habitat of the Asiatic Lion Panthera leo persica. Gir forest has become a very stable ecosystem with tremendous regenerating, self-supporting and selfsustaining capacity, due to its compactness and richness of biodiversity. It is one of the largest biologically intact continuous tracts of land in India reserved primarily for the conservation of its native wild fauna (Singh 1998, 2001). The site has an undulating, low, hilly terrain. The protected area is surrounded by flat agricultural land. The total area is 141,213 ha, comprising of the Wildlife Sanctuary (115,342 ha) which encircles the National Park (25,871 ha). This area enjoys protection of the highest order. A 380 km long stone wall borders the entire National Park. The area forms the catchment for seven major and two minor rivers. There are four dams and seven perennial rivers within the protected area. In all, 448 species of flowering plants and 96 tree species have been recorded in the area, including Tectona grandis, Acacia catachu, Boswellia serrata, dhak Butea monosperma, Lannea coromandelica, Anogeissus latifolia and Diospyros melanoxylon, Ficus glomerata and Syzygium cumini (Singh 1998).
AVIFAUNA: About 300 species of birds have been recorded from Gir (Singh 1998). Globally threatened species include Dalmatian Pelican Pelecanus crispus, Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga, Indian Skimmer Rynchops albicollis, Oriental White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis and Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus. The wetlands in Gir support several waterfowl species, especially in Kamaleshwar Dam. The area has always been and continues to be popular with birdwatchers (Raol 1969). Out of the 9 species of vultures in India, Gir has six. Two Gyps species have now become very rare. During a visit in 2001, not a single bird of these species was seen in two days (A. R. Rahmani pers. observ. 2003). The Lesser Florican Sypheotides indica is mainly seen in the surrounding grassland, very rarely inside Gir. Similarly, Sarus Crane Grus antigone is also found mainly in the surrounding areas. In the whole of Saurashtra region, Gir is the largest tract of natural forests, and represents the best example of the original flora and fauna. Except for the Grey Hornbill Ocyceros birostris, which has become extinct due to persecution by tribals, most of the birds of the Indo-Malayan Tropical Dry Forests (Biome-11) are found in Gir. Gir was selected as an IBA based on A1 (Threatened Species) and A3 (Biome-11: Indo-Malayan Tropical Dry Forests). The bird list of biome species is too long to be included here.
OTHER KEY FAUNA: About 36 species of mammals, 300 species of birds, 33 of reptiles, 6 of amphibians, and 2,000 of invertebrates have been reported from the area (Singh 1998). Besides the famous lions, Gir also supports a large population of the leopard Panthera pardus.
Important prey species comprise Spotted Deer Axis axis, Wild Boar Sus scrofa, Bluebull Boselaphus tragocamelus and Sambar Cervus unicolor, as well as domestic cattle. Other mammals include Fourhorned antelope Tetracerus quadricornis, Chinkara Gazella bennettii, Striped hyaena Hyaena hyaena, Golden Jackal Canis aureus, Common Langur Semnopithecus entellus, Porcupine Hystrix indica and Black-naped Hare Lepus nigricollis.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Baer's Pochard Aythya baeri||winter||2004||present||-||A1||Critically Endangered|
|Dalmatian Pelican Pelecanus crispus||winter||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Spot-billed Pelican Pelecanus philippensis||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Near Threatened|
|White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis||non-breeding||2004||present||-||A1||Critically Endangered|
|Greater Spotted Eagle Clanga clanga||winter||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Eastern Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca||winter||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Indian Vulture Gyps indicus||non-breeding||2004||present||-||A1||Critically Endangered|
|Lesser Florican Sypheotides indicus||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Endangered|
|Sarus Crane Antigone antigone||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Indian Skimmer Rynchops albicollis||non-breeding||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Medium - based upon reliable but incomplete / partially representative data|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming||likely in long term (beyond 4 years)||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Shrubland||0||0||good (> 90%)||good (> 90%)||favourable|
|Whole area of site (>90%) covered by appropriate conservation designation||A comprehensive and appropriate management plan exists that aims to maintain or improve the populations of qualifying bird species||Some limited conservation initiatives are in place||medium|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Gir||National Park||25,871||protected area contained by site||25,871|
|Gir||Sanctuary||115,342||protected area contained by site||115,342|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|nature conservation and research||-|
|Notes: Nature conservation and research|
|Notes: Tourism and recreation|
|Notes: Urban transport|
Acknowledgements Key contributor: H. S. Singh.
Raol, L. M. (1969) Birdwatching at Sasan Gir Forest. Newsletter for Birdwatchers 9(3): 3-5.
Singh, H. S. (1998) Wildlife Protected Areas of Gujarat, Gujarat Ecological Education and Research (GEER) Foundation, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.
Singh, H. S. (2001). Natural Heritage of Gujarat. Gujarat Ecological Education and Research (GEER) Foundation, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.
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Recommended citation BirdLife International (2015) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/11/2015
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