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Location India, Gujarat
Central coordinates 72o 0.00' East  22o 19.98' North
IBA criteria A1
Area 259,000 ha
Year of IBA assessment 2004

Bombay Natural History Society

Site description The Bhal (literally meaning the forehead) is a flat alluvial plain, made up of a mosaic of croplands, saline wastelands, grasslands, pasture land and marshes (Dharmakumarsinhji 1978). It is bordered on the south by the Kalubar river, extends north to Dholka and Dhandhuka, and northwest to Limbdi. The Bhal region is believed to have emerged from the sea during the late Tertiary and early Quaternary, much later than the rest of Saurashtra which appeared during the Cretaceous period (Dharmakumarsinhji 1978, Raychaudhari et al. 1963). The Bhal region is prone to droughts and floods. Cyclones occasionally strike the coast of Saurashtra. During such times, the Bhal becomes a large swamp. This attracts a very large number of waders and other waterbirds. The Bhal area was an open treeless habitat as recently as 50 years ago (Dharmakumarsinhji 1978, Mungall et al. 1981). Prosopis chilensis was planted in the Bhal area about 60 years ago near Mithapur, to provide fuel wood. It has since spread rampantly and converted much of the grasslands into savanna and thorn-forest habitat (Jhala 1991). Nearly forty species of grasses have been identified from the area. The dominant grass species are Dicanthium annulatum, Sporobolus virginicus, S. coromandelianus and S. maderspatensis. Prosopis chilensis is the dominant species of shrub.

Key Biodiversity 

AVIFAUNA: No detailed study of the avifauna has been conducted, except for notes by Dharmakumarsinhji and others. However, the scattered patches of grasslands were perhaps the most important breeding areas for the Lesser Florican, and even now they could become important if protected during monsoon. Velavadar (another IBA), also in Bhal region, has well-protected grassland and between 40- 45 male floricans are seen there. Bhal region is an important habitat of Stoliczka’s Bushchat Saxicola macrorhyncha (Gadhvi and Rathod 2003). It is seen in and around Velavadar NP but is likely to occur in more areas in the Bhal. Wherever water remains for a couple of months, Sarus Crane Grus antigone breeds. No population estimate has been done, but after Kheda region in north Gujarat, the Bhal could be the most important habitat for this bird in Gujarat. In winter, Houbara or Macqueen’s bustard Chlamydotis macqueeni is found, albeit in small numbers. The Bhal region is also very important for raptors. Scattered grasslands and crop fields host a huge population of harriers. According to Asad Akhtar (pers. comm. 2001), between 3-4 thousand harriers roost in Velavadar NP. During the daytime, most of these harriers spread out in the Bhal region for foraging. Therefore, small grassland patches are extremely important for the survival of harriers.

OTHER KEY FAUNA: Nilgai Boselaphus tragocamelus is very common, despite it being a crop pest, as the local populace does not harm it. Chinkara Gazella bennettii is also seen, but only in undulating areas. Scattered herds of Blackbuck Antilope cervicapra are also found, the majority of them occuring in Velavadar NP. The Grey Wolf Canis lupus is the largest wild predator of the region (Jhala 1991). The Indian Fox Vulpes bengalensis and Golden Jackal Canis aureus are smaller Canids of this area. Nearly 100 years ago, the vast flat grasslands of the Bhal used to have Cheetah Acinonyx jubatus. Once Cheetah became extinct here (and extremely rare in the rest of India), African Cheetahs were used for sport hunting. The Bhal is perhaps the last area in India where, up to the mid 1940s, tame African Cheetahs were used for hunting Blackbuck (Craighhead and Craighhead 2001).

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni passage  2004  present  A1  Least Concern 
Greater Spotted Eagle Clanga clanga winter  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Eastern Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca winter  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Lesser Florican Sypheotides indicus resident  2004  present  A1  Endangered 
Sarus Crane Antigone antigone resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
White-browed Bushchat Saxicola macrorhynchus resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 

IBA Monitoring

2014 high favourable negligible
Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data

Residential and commercial development commercial and industrial development likely in short term (within 4 years) majority/most of area/population (50-90%) very rapid to severe deterioration high

Grassland   0 0 good (> 90%) good (> 90%) favourable
Wetlands (inland)   0 0 good (> 90%) good (> 90%) favourable

Little/none of site covered (<10%)  No management planning has taken place  Very little or no conservation action taking place  negligible 


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest   -
Shrubland   -
Grassland   -
Artificial - terrestrial   -
Wetlands (inland)   -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
agriculture -
Notes: Agriculture
rangeland/pastureland -
Notes: Grazing land
urban/industrial/transport -
Notes: Human habitation; Saltpan industries; Traffic / transportation

Acknowledgements Key contributors: I. R. Gadhvi, V. A. Rathod and Y. N. Jhala.


Craighhead J. J. and Craighhead, F. C, Jr. (2001) Life with an Indian Prince. Heritage Publication Series, Vol. 2. Archives of American Falconry, Boise, Idaho, USA.

Dharmakumarsinhji, K. S. (1978) Velavadar National Park, Gujarat, India. Tigerpaper 5 (1): 6-8.

Gadhvi, I. R. and Rathod, V. A. (2003) Status survey of threatened bird species in the Bhal area, Gujarat with special emphasis to Houbara bustard and Stoliczka’s Bushchat. Report submitted to Bombay Natural History Society.

Jhala, Y. V. (1991) Habitat and population dynamics of wolves and blackbuck. Ph. D. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, U.S.A.

Mungall, E. C., Patel, B. H., Prasad, N. L. N. S. and Dougherthy, S. E. (1981) Conservation and management of the Indian blackbuck antelope (Antilope cervicapra). Joint U. S. - Indian Blackbuck Project, Final report. Pp. 111.

Raychaudhari, S. P., Agarwal, R. R., Biswas, N. R. D., Gupta, S. P. and Thomas, P. K. (1963) Soils of India. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi. Pp. 496.

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Bhal area. Downloaded from on 26/10/2016

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