|Central coordinates||74o 12.22' East 14o 59.07' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A2, A3|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description The Cotigao Wildlife Sanctuary, in the Canacona taluka, is 10 km southeast of Chaudi. The IBA lies partly in the Western Ghats. It was established in 1969 to protect a remote and vulnerable area of forest lining the Goa-Karnataka interstate border. The terrain is hilly and includes undulating uplands. Many small rivulets flow through the Sanctuary in the monsoon, but dry up in summer. The ancient Jeevottam Partagal Math, noted for Vedic studies, lies in the vicinity of the Sanctuary. The main vegetation types are West Coast Tropical Evergreen Forest, West Coast Semi-Evergreen Forest, and Moist Deciduous Forest. The evergreen forests are mainly present on higher altitudes and on riversides.
AVIFAUNA: Not much is known of the bird life of Cotigao but Anil Pinto (pers. comm. 2002) has reported Nilgiri Wood-Pigeon Columba elphinstonii, a globally threatened species (BirdLife International 2001). The site lies in the Western Ghats Endemic Bird Area (EBA 123) in which Stattersfield et al. (1998) have listed 16 species as Restricted Range. Six have been seen till now, but more are likely to be found once detailed studies are conducted. Of the 15 Biome-10 species (BirdLife International, undated), 12 are reported from Cotigao. Of the remaining three, the Ceylon Frogmouth Batrachostomus moniliger is likely to occur in the thick Tropical Evergreen Forest of the IBA, although it has not been listed by Lainer (1999) or Grubh and Ali (1976). The Indian Ediblenest Swiftlet Collocalia unicolor “may be encountered anywhere in Goa, but most frequently in c. 5 km deep strip along the coast” (Lainer 1999). It is also likely to occur in Cotigao, although it has not been reported from there. The Hill Swallow Hirundo domicola, (called Pacific Swallow H. tahitica by Grimmett et al. 1999), a bird of the southern Western Ghats, is reported as stray in Goa (Lainer 1999 calls it House Swallow).
OTHER KEY FAUNA: The Leopard Panthera pardus is the apex predator in this small Sanctuary, mainly on Sambar Cervus unicolor, Barking Deer Muntiacus muntjak and Mouse Deer Moschiola meminna. Gaur Bos frontalis is also found, but an adult is too large a prey for a leopard. The Flying Squirrel Petaurista petaurista is present.
Slender Loris Loris tardigradus, and Pangolin Manis crassicaudata are present but difficult to see due to their nocturnal habit. Small Indian Civet Viverricula indica and Golden Jackal Canis aureus are the smaller predators. Cotigao has many species of interesting reptiles, including King Cobra Ophiophagus hannah, but not much is known about them. Similarly, the freshwater fish have not been adequately surveyed.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis||non-breeding||2004||present||-||A1||Critically Endangered|
|Nilgiri Woodpigeon Columba elphinstonii||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A2, A3||Vulnerable|
|Malabar Parakeet Psittacula columboides||-||2004||present||-||A2, A3||Least Concern|
|Malabar Grey Hornbill Ocyceros griseus||-||2004||present||-||A2, A3||Least Concern|
|White-bellied Treepie Dendrocitta leucogastra||-||2004||present||-||A2, A3||Least Concern|
|Grey-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus priocephalus||-||2004||present||-||A2, A3||Near Threatened|
|White-bellied Blue-flycatcher Cyornis pallipes||-||2004||present||-||A2, A3||Least Concern|
|2003||low||not assessed||not assessed|
|Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||low|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Cotigao||Sanctuary||8,565||is identical to site||8,565|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|nature conservation and research||-|
|Notes: Nature Conservation|
Acknowledgements Key contributor: Heinz Lainer.
BirdLife International (2001) Threatened Birds of Asia: The BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
BirdLife International (undated) Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in Asia: Project briefing book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K., unpublished.
Grimmett, R., C. Inskipp and T. Inskipp (1999) Birds of the Indian Subcontinent. Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
Grubh, R. B. and S. Ali (1976) Birds of Goa. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 73(1): 42-58.
Lainer, H. (1999) The Birds of Goa. Pt . I & II. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 96(2): 203-220, 96(3): 405-423.
Stattersfield, A. J., Crosby, M. J., Long, A. J. and Wege, D. C. (1998) Endemic Bird Areas of the World: Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 7. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
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