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Location India, Goa
Central coordinates 73o 50.00' East  15o 23.00' North
IBA criteria A1, A2, A4i, A4iii
Area 72 ha
Altitude 0
Year of IBA assessment 2004

Bombay Natural History Society

Site description Carambolim lake lies in Ilhas taluka, about 12 km from Panjim, the capital of Goa. It is spread over an area of 70 ha, of which 40 ha is under water for most of the year. In order to grow paddy, a number of minor irrigation tanks have been developed in Goa. These tanks are made by the impoundment of run-off during the monsoon. They are also a natural source of fish, because every year, before the monsoon, the remaining water is drained out to empty the tanks and the fish are harvested. The sluice gates of Carambolim lake at the southeastern side are kept closed from late July to early May next year. The impounded water is used for irrigation of paddy fields in the lower reaches on the southern side of the lake (Shanbhag et al. 2001). The western embankment of the lake serves as the base for the recently laid Konkan railway track, while the eastern side has been partially cleared of its scrub forests, mango and cashew groves, to pave the way for the construction of residential buildings. Coconut and mango trees fringe the remaining sides of the lake. The water depth is between 1.5 m to 3 m, depending upon the season. The lake lies between the estuarine zone of the Mandovi and Zuari rivers. The main vegetation consists of Nymphea stellata, a rooted plant with floating leaves, Oryza rufipogon, an emergent wild paddy, and submerged Hydrilla verticillata.

Key Biodiversity 

AVIFAUNA: Carambolim lake attracts thousands of birds, especially waterfowl. Shanbhag et al. (2001) identified 92 species of birds including 17 winter visitors. In 1997, they reported the presence of 25,590 waterfowl, of which Northern Pintail Anas acuta numbered 15,187, Lesser Whistling Duck Dendrocygna javanica numbered 4,957 and Coot Fulica atra numbered 347. In the winter of 1987-88, when large parts of India were affected by drought, and Goa had an adequate monsoon, over 75,000 waterfowl were seen in Carambolim (Lainer 1999). According to Lainer (1999), in a normal year, over 35,000 waterbirds could be found in this wetland. Besides A4iii criteria, Carambolim lake also fits A4i criteria (the site is known or thought to hold, on a regular basis, >1% of a biogeographical population of a congregatory waterbird species). Over 4,000 Garganey Anas querquedula regularly winter at this IBA (Lainer 1999). The 1% threshold is 2,500 (Wetlands International 2002). Close to Carambolim lake, at Corlim (Tiswadi), is located the Swiss-owned Hindustan Ciba Geigy Ltd (HCGL) Factory which produces highly toxic pesticides for agricultural use. The large factory compound contains two shallow ponds that give undisturbed shelter to Goa’s only known heronry, and a safe haven to quite a number of migrant and vagrant Ciconiidae and Threskiornithidae (Lainer 1999). The following species are breeding regularly in the heronry (population numbers for 2002 in brackets): Little Cormorant Phalacrocorax niger (200 pairs), Indian Shage P. fuscicollis (100 pairs), Oriental Darter Anhinga melanogaster (21 pairs), Purple Heron Ardea purpurea (45 pairs), Large Egret Ardea alba (94 pairs). Regular visitors include Grey Heron Ardea cinerea (up to 37), Black crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax (up to 14) Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala (up to 5), Asian Openbill Stork Anastomus oscitans (up to 37), White-necked or Wooly-necked Stork Ciconia episcopus (up to 40), Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus (up to 22) and Lesser Whistling Duck (up to 4000). Among the occasional and rare visitors count Black Stork Ciconia nigra (2), European White Stork C. ciconia (1), Oriental White Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus (up to 89) and Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia (up to 19). The dry fields near Carambolim are well known for raptors, and a very small chat, which was discovered in 1996. It is still not known for sure if it was a Stoliczka’s Bushchat Saxicola macrorhyncha or a species new to science! Although this site has one Restricted Range species of Western Ghats (Malabar Parakeet Psittacula columboides) and one Biome-10 species of Indian Peninsula Tropical Moist Forest (Blue-faced Malkoha Phaenicophaeus viridirostris), it is selected as an IBA based on A4i and A4iii criteria.

OTHER KEY FAUNA: Presently none of conservation significance.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Garganey Spatula querquedula 2004  present  A4i  Least Concern 
Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Greater Spotted Eagle Clanga clanga winter  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Indian Vulture Gyps indicus non-breeding  2004  present  A1  Critically Endangered 
Malabar Parakeet Psittacula columboides resident  2004  present  A2  Least Concern 
A4iii Species group - waterbirds unknown  2004  20,000 individuals  unknown  A4iii   

IBA Monitoring

2013 very high very unfavourable low

Human intrusions and disturbance work and other activities happening now whole area/population (>90%) moderate to rapid deterioration very high
Pollution domestic & urban waste water - sewage happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Pollution garbage & solid waste happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) moderate to rapid deterioration low

Wetlands (inland)   0 0 poor (40-69%) poor (40-69%) very unfavourable

Whole area of site (>90%) covered by appropriate conservation designation  No management planning has taken place  Unknown  low 


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Marine Coastal/Supratidal   -
Wetlands (inland)   -
Artificial - terrestrial   -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
water management -
Notes: Irrigation

Acknowledgements Key contributors: A. B. Shanbhag and Heinz Lainer.


Lainer, H. (1999) Birds of Goa. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 96 (2): 203-220.

Shanbhag, A. B., Walia, R. and Borges, S. D. (2001) The impact of Konkan Railway Project on the avifauna of Carambolim Lake in Goa. Zoo’s Print Journal 16(6): 503-508.

Wetlands International (2002) Waterbird Population Estimates- Third Edition. Wetlands International Global Series No. 12, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Carambolim Wetlands. Downloaded from on 22/10/2016

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