|Central coordinates||84o 8.60' East 27o 18.50' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A3|
|Altitude||125 - 880m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description Valmiki Tiger Reserve is located in the northernmost part of West Champaran district of Bihar. The Rivers Gandak and Masan flow through this area. The core area of the Tiger Reserve is a National Park (Jain 2001). Most of the terai forests and grasslands in Bihar have been converted in to agricultural fields. Valmiki Tiger Reserve is the only such habitat left untouched in Bihar. This Reserve is also under tremendous pressure from encroachers and poachers. Saraiya Man Bird Sanctuary is a freshwater body c. 7 km from Bagha. It is known for good numbers of waterbirds. We have designated this small bird sanctuary and the Tiger Reserve as one IBA. The forest types include Mixed Deciduous Forests, Cane brakes, grasslands and swamp forests. Important trees include Sal Shorea robusta, Khair Acacia catechu and Cane Calamus pseudo-tenuis.
AVIFAUNA: The avifauna of this Reserve is inadequately studied, but it can be said that where the forest is intact, almost all the terai forest species are likely to occur that are found in Dudhwa (Javed and Rahmani 1998) or the adjoining Sohagi Barwa Sanctuary in Uttar Pradesh. Presently, the grasslands are not in good condition, due to grazing and plantation, but they could be revived with effective management. We might even get back the Bengal Florican Houbaropsis bengalensis that has become locally extinct in the Reserve. Mukherjee (1986) claims to have seen one bird in 1980. To the north of Valmiki Tiger Reserve, in Nepal, is located the Royal Chitwan National Park, where this species is still found (BirdLife International 2001). Globally threatened species such as the Swamp Francolin Francolinus gularis and Sociable Lapwing Vanellus gregarius have been reported from the area (Javed and Rahmani 1991). The Vulnerable Sarus Crane Grus antigone also occurs in small numbers (Anon. 1993, Gopi Sundar et al. 2000). The Greater Adjutant Leptoptilos dubius has not been seen for many decades, but the Lesser Adjutant L. javanicus is still found in streams and ponds. The most important wetland, Bhasa-lotan (= wallow of buffalo), famous for Wild Buffalo Bubalus arnee (=bubalis), has been completely drained out and now a bustling, dirty town stands over it.
OTHER KEY FAUNA: Valmiki Tiger Reserve was the 18th tiger reserve to be declared in India, with the sole purpose of arresting the decline of this apex carnivore, and also an ecosystem which could support this endangered animal. Besides Tiger Panthera tigris, it has Leopard P. pardus, Sambar Cervus unicolor, Cheetal or Spotted Deer Axis axis, Hog Deer Axis porcinus and other associated animals of the terai. Wild Buffalo and Swamp Deer Cervus duvaucelii have become locally extinct. Hispid Hare Caprolagus hispidus probably survives in the grassland.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Swamp Francolin Francolinus gularis||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A3||Vulnerable|
|Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Sarus Crane Antigone antigone||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Sociable Lapwing Vanellus gregarius||winter||2004||present||-||A1||Critically Endangered|
|2003||high||not assessed||not assessed|
|Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||very rapid to severe deterioration||low|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming||happening now||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||high|
|Biological resource use||hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target)||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||high|
|Biological resource use||logging & wood harvesting - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||low|
|Human intrusions and disturbance||work and other activities||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Invasive & other problematic species, genes & diseases||invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - unspecified species||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||very rapid to severe deterioration||low|
|Natural system modifications||dams & water management/use - abstraction of surface water (unknown use)||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Natural system modifications||fire & fire suppression - increase in fire frequency/intensity||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||high|
|Transportation and service corridors||roads and railroads||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||very rapid to severe deterioration||low|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Valmiki||National Park||33,565||protected area contained by site||33,565|
|Valmiki||Sanctuary||54,467||protected area contained by site||54,467|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|nature conservation and research||-|
|Notes: Nature education and conservation|
|Notes: Water management|
Acknowledgements Key contributors: Arvind Mishra, Asad R. Rahmani and Pushp Jain.
Anonymous (1993) Important fauna of tiger reserves. Project Tiger, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, New Delhi.
BirdLife International (2001) Threatened Birds of Asia: The BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International. Cambridge, U.K.
Gopi Sundar, K. S., Kaur, J. and Choudhury, B. C. (2000) Distribution, demography and conservation status of the Indian Sarus Crane (Grus antigone antigone) in India. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 97 (3): 319-339.
Jain, P. (2001) Project Tiger Status Report, Project Tiger, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, New Delhi.
Javed, S. and Rahmani, A. R. (1991) Swamp Francolin in the north Indian terai. World Pheasant Assoc. News. 34: 15-18.
Javed, S. and Rahmani, A. R. (1998) Conservation of the avifauna of Dudwa National Park, India. Forktail 14: 55-64.
Mukherjee, A. K. (1986) The ecology and conservation of Bengal Florican Eupodotis bengalensis (Gmelin). In Majpuria, T. J. (ed.) Wildlife Wealth of India. Thailand Teepress Service.
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