|Central coordinates||86o 8.00' East 25o 37.00' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A4iii|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description Kawar (Kabar) Lake Wildlife Sanctuary, also a Ramsar Site, is the largest freshwater lake in northern Bihar. It is a residual oxbow lake formed by the changing course of the River Gandak, a tributary of the Ganga. In years of average rainfall, the Kawar Lake joins with the nearby Nagri Lake, Bikrampur Chaur and Burhi Gandak, a tributary of the River Ganga, to form a lake of about 7,400 ha. By late summer, however, the water is confined to the deeper areas of only c. 200 to 300 ha. As the water level recedes, over 2,400 ha of the exposed mudflats are converted into paddy fields. There is a permanent island (Jaimanglagarh) of about 130 ha in the southeast corner of the lake. Kawar Lake experiences tropical monsoon climate typical of the middle Gangetic plain. The lake supports a rich and diverse aquatic flora. Submerged macrophytes include Hydrilla verticillata, Potamogeton crispus and Najas minor. Emergent macrophytes include Oryza sativa and Ipomea aquatica (Anon. 1993).
AVIFAUNA: The lake is eutrophic, sustaining rich plant and animal life, and teeming with waterfowl (George 1964). Kawar is one of the most important wetlands for waterfowl in the Indo-Gangetic Plain. It supports huge numbers of migratory ducks and Coot Fulica atra through the winter, as well as large concentrations of resident species such as Dabchick Tachybaptus ruficollis and Asian Openbill Anastomus oscitans. The Near Threatened Oriental White Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus, Ferruginous Pochard Aythyca nyroca and Rufous-vented Prinia Prinia burnesii are also found (Arvind Mishra pers. comm. 2001). About 26 species of birds including Baillon’s Crake Porzana pusilla, Fantail Snipe Gallinago gallinago, Ruff Philomachus pugnax and Greyheaded Lapwing Vanellus cinereus were ringed here during a BNHS bird ringing camp (Anon. 2002). It is difficult to estimate the number of waterfowl found in Kawar as no systematic study has been conducted but certainly, every year, more than 20,000 waterbirds are found here, thus fulfilling A4iii criteria of BirdLife International (undated). It is likely that totally about a hundred thousand birds still visit this site. To give an idea of the number of birds that used to visit this site, S. P. Shahi estimated that about 70,000 birds were trapped every year till early 1980s. Manjhol town was a major bird market and a center for distribution to other areas. Since the declaration of the Sanctuary in 1989, bird trapping has reduced considerably but has been replaced by poisoning instead.
OTHER KEY FAUNA: Over 29 species of commercially valuable fish have been recorded from the lake. The edible mollusc Pila globosa is abundant, the main food of the Asian Openbill.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Greater Spotted Eagle Clanga clanga||winter||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis||non-breeding||2004||present||-||A1||Critically Endangered|
|Indian Vulture Gyps indicus||non-breeding||2004||present||-||A1||Critically Endangered|
|Sarus Crane Antigone antigone||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|A4iii Species group - waterbirds||unknown||2004||20,000 individuals||unknown||A4iii|
|2003||high||not assessed||not assessed|
|Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||annual & perennial non-timber crops - agro-industry farming||likely in long term (beyond 4 years)||whole area/population (>90%)||very rapid to severe deterioration||high|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Biological resource use||fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale||happening now||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||high|
|Biological resource use||gathering terrestrial plants - unintentional effects (species being assessed is not the target)||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||no or imperceptible deterioration||low|
|Biological resource use||hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target)||happening now||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||high|
|Invasive & other problematic species, genes & diseases||invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - named species||happening now||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||slow but significant deterioration||high|
|Natural system modifications||dams & water management/use - abstraction of surface water (agricultural use)||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||high|
|Pollution||agricultural & forestry effluents - type unknown/unrecorded||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Kabar Lake||Sanctuary||6,311||is identical to site||6,311|
Local conservation groups The local conservation group below is working to support conservation at this IBA.
|Kawar/Kabar Lake Bird Sanctuary (Mandar Nature Club)||0|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|Notes: Grazing land|
|Notes: Irrigation; Water management|
Acknowledgements Key contributors: Arvind Mishra, Ali Hussain and Mehboob Alam.
Anonymous (1993) Directory of Indian Wetlands, WWF-INDIA, New Delhi and AWB Kuala Lumpur, xvi + 264 pp; 32 maps.
Anonymous (2002) Bird Banders Training Programme Final Report, Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai, India.
BirdLife International (undated) Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in Asia: Project briefing book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K., unpublished.
George, P. V. (1964) Notes on migrant birds in North Bihar, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 61: 370-384 Shahi S.P. (1982) Bird massacre in Manjhaul. Hornbill 3: 17-22.
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