|Central coordinates||92o 10.80' East 26o 9.47' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A2, A4iii|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description Located close to Guwahati, the capital of Assam, Pabitora is high on the agenda of visitors to northeast India. It is only an hour’s drive from the capital. The Sanctuary is known for its dense population of Indian One-horned Rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis. Around 70 animals are found in 1,600 ha, making it the most densely populated rhino area in the world! The original Sanctuary area is flat terrain, being on the floodplains, and consists of grassland (c. 70%) with c. 100 ha of forest and some waterbodies (beels). The hill of Raja Mayong, which has been included subsequently in this Sanctuary, is an isolated hillock with Moist Deciduous Forest. Pabitora is traversed by seasonal channels that become lakes in winter. These include Garanga, Haduk, and Tuplung. Tamuliduba is large and close to the main road. Crop fields are present all around this small reserve. Pabitora was a traditional grazing reserve, where the villagers used to graze their cattle and buffalo. It was declared as a Reserve Forest and then a Wildlife Sanctuary to protect the rhinos. In winter, Pabitora becomes a birder’s haven, with thousands of waterfowl thronging the wetlands. Pabitora can be divided into three distinct categories: forest, grassland and water bodies or beels. Only about 13% of the total area is under tree cover, consisting of Albizzia procera, Bombax ceiba, Lagerstromia flosreginae and Barringtonia acutangula. About 72% of Pabitora consists of wet savannah of Arundo donax, Erianthus ravennae, Phragmites karka, Imperata cylindrica, and Saccharum spp. (Barua 1998, Choudhury 2000). The remaining area is covered by beels. Water hyacinth Eichornia crassipes is a major problem, especially to waterfowl, as it forms thick mats on the water surface. Euryale ferox is seen in some open areas. It is a very good breeding ground for Pheasant-tailed Jacana Hydrophasianus chirurgus and Bronze-winged Jacana Metopidius indicus.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Swamp Francolin Francolinus gularis||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Greater Adjutant Leptoptilos dubius||breeding||2004||present||-||A1||Endangered|
|White-bellied Heron Ardea insignis||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Critically Endangered|
|Spot-billed Pelican Pelecanus philippensis||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Near Threatened|
|Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni||passage||2004||present||-||A1||Least Concern|
|Pallas's Fish-eagle Haliaeetus leucoryphus||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis||non-breeding||2004||present||-||A1||Critically Endangered|
|Greater Spotted Eagle Clanga clanga||winter||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Slender-billed Vulture Gyps tenuirostris||non-breeding||2004||present||-||A1||Critically Endangered|
|Bengal Florican Houbaropsis bengalensis||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Critically Endangered|
|Spotted Greenshank Tringa guttifer||winter||2004||present||-||A1||Endangered|
|Yellow-vented Warbler Phylloscopus cantator||-||2004||present||-||A2||Least Concern|
|Marsh Babbler Pellorneum palustre||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A2||Vulnerable|
|Yellow Weaver Ploceus megarhynchus||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|A4iii Species group - waterbirds||unknown||2004||20,000 individuals||unknown||A4iii|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Pabitora||Sanctuary||3,883||is identical to site||3,883|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|nature conservation and research||-|
|Notes: Tourism and recreation|
Acknowledgements Key contributors: Mrigen Barua and Anwaruddin Choudhury.
Barua, M. (1998) Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary. Zoo’s Print 4: 9-11.
BirdLife International (undated) Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in Asia: Project briefing book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K., unpublished.
Choudhury, A. U. (2000) The Birds of Assam. Gibbon Books and WWFIndia, N E Regional Office, Guwahati.
Stattersfield, A. J., Crosby, M. J., Long, A. J. and Wege, D. C. (1998) Endemic Bird Areas of the World: Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 7. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
Talukdar, B. K. (1996) Diversity of water birds in Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary. Pavo 34: 17-21.
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