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Location India, Assam
Central coordinates 95o 21.00' East  27o 41.40' North
IBA criteria A1, A2
Area 80,000 ha
Altitude 90 - 100m
Year of IBA assessment 2004

Bombay Natural History Society

Site description This complex covers Dibru-Saikhowa National Park, Poba Reserve Forest, Kobo chapori (river islands) proposed reserve forest, Amarpur chapori, Maguri and Motapung beel (lake), and the adjacent riverine tract of the Brahmaputra and Lohit rivers. The Dibru-Saikhowa NP proper covers 34,000 ha in the districts of Tinsukia and Dibrugarh in eastern Assam. It is 13 km north of Tinsukia town. It is also a Biosphere Reserve. The area is known as a major haunt of the globally threatened White-winged Duck Cairina scutulata, Black-breasted Parrotbill Paradoxornis flavirostris and Marsh Babbler Pellorneum palustre. In 1986, the Government of Assam declared Dibru and Saikhowa Reserve Forests as Dibru-Saikhowa Wildlife Sanctuary, covering 64,000 ha which also included Amarpur chapori and the adjacent riverine tract of the Brahmaputra and Lohit rivers. Subsequently, the area was upgraded to a national park. However, at the time of final notification as a sanctuary and as well as a national park, only the reserve forest areas were included. Maguri and Motapung beels in Tinsukia district, although very important for the conservation of waterfowl, are outside. Similarly, Poba and Kobo, important biodiversity sites, are located north of the Park and are in Dhemaji disrict. We have included all these adjacent sites in one IBA. Dibru-Saikhowa has the largest salix swamp forest in northeastern India. Tropical Moist Deciduous, Tropical Semi-evergreen, Evergreen Forests and grassland forms the main habitat type. The original vegetation of the Park was tropical rainforest, but a large part sank by a few meters during the earthquake in 1950, causing significant geomorphological changes. Due to regular flooding, the rainforest gradually gave way to deciduous forest and swamps (Choudhury 1998). The relatively remote Amarpur area, on the northern side of the Brahmaputra river, not included in the Park but is a part of the wider Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, has significant areas of tall grass, which are largely absent in the other areas of the Park. The Amarpur peninsula within the Biosphere Reserve covers about 3,000 ha. It is generally low-lying and much of it is flooded during the monsoon season (Allen 2002).

Key Biodiversity 

AVIFAUNA: Dibru-Saikhowa complex is very rich in bird life, with more than 310 species already identified (Choudhury 1994, 1997). It is one of the sites in the northeast where highly endangered and elusive White-bellied Heron Ardea insignis is seen. Choudhury (2002) saw a lone bird in Salbeel area in November 1993. The two Critically Endangered Gyps species of vultures were not uncommon during 1992-94, but now both are very rare. During a survey in October 2001, no Oriental White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis and Slender-billed Vulture Gyps tenuirostris were sighted (Choudhury 2002). Two more Endangered birds that could have significant populations in this IBA are White-winged Duck Cairina scutulata and Bengal Florican Houbaropsis bengalensis. Four nests of White-winged Duck have been recorded. Most of the recent sightings have been listed in Choudhury (1996) and historic records in Green (1992). The Bengal Florican is a rare resident of the grasslands. There are many sight records from this IBA (Choudhury 2002). Another Endangered bird of which we have few confirmed records from India is Nordmann’s Greenshank Tringa guttifer. Choudhury (2002) reports a lone bird near Dighaltarang on the bank of the Dangori river in November 1993. Baker (1904) had reported nest of Masked Finfoot Heliopais personata in July at Dighaltarang but Choudhury (2002) could not find any evidence of existence of this species. The tall wet grasslands of Dibru-Saikhowa are important for many threatened and non-threatened species. Stattersfield et al. (1998) have identified three endemic species in the Assam Plains Endemic Bird Area: Manipur Bush Quail Perdicula manipurensis, Black-breasted Parrotbill Paradoxornis flavirostris and Marsh Babbler Pellorneum palustre. The first species is historically not found in the floodplains of the Brahmaputra but the remaining two endemics are found in this site. Choudhury (2002) sighted the Marsh Babbler a number of times, mainly in Toralipathar in 1992-1994. The Black-breasted Parrotbill lives in dense tall grass so sighting it is not easy. Nevertheless, Choudhury (2002) was able to see two individuals in association with the Rufous-necked Laughingthrush Garrulax ruficollis in Amarpur on December 1993. The sighting of the Black-breasted Parrotbill is significant as there are hardly any recent records from anywhere in its range (Choudhury 1997). Another notable record from this IBA is sighting of a pair of Sarus Crane Grus antigone, the first sighting of the species in north-east Indian for several decades. The birds were of nominate race antigone and this record has extended their range by 500 km. The Grey Treepie Dendrocitta formosa and Oriental Turtle Dove Streptopelia orientalis were found to be resident at lower altitudes (c. 100 m) (Choudhury 1997) than previously recorded by Ali and Ripley (1987). Jerdon’s Babbler Chrysomma altirostre, the globally Vulnerable species of tall wet grasslands, is common in the more extensive habitat in Amarpur (Allen 2002). Puff-throated Babbler Pellorneum ruficeps, is quite common in the forested areas at Kolomi, and was seen in the same habitat of low bushes at the forest edge as Marsh Babbler; it was also found in Amarpur (Allen 2002). The tall grass of Amarpur is of great value for many Restricted Range grassland birds (Allen 2002) Dibru-Saikhowa is among the most important wintering sites in Assam of the Black Stork Ciconia nigra (Choudhury 1997). Excellent reports and papers on the bird life of this site by Choudhury (1994, 1997, 1998, 2002), show that this IBA has 2 globally Critically Endangered, 5 Endangered, 13 Vulnerable, and 11 Near Threatened species. The site qualifies A1 (Threatened Species), and A2 (Restricted Range criteria). The list of Biomerestricted species is too long to be included here. It is one of the best known IBAs of Assam.

OTHER KEY FAUNA: Other fauna includes Asian Elephant Elephas maximus, Tiger Panthera tigris, Leopard P. pardus, Sloth Bear Melursus ursinus, Slow Loris Nycticebus coucang, Pigtailed Macaque Macaca nemestrina, Rhesus Macaque M. mulatta, Assamese Macaque M. assamensis, Capped Langur Trachypithecus pileatus, Barking Deer Muntiacus muntjak, Hog Deer Axis porcinus, Flying Squirrel Petaurista sp., Gangetic River Dolphin Plantanista gangetica, Monitor Lizards Varanus bengalensis, V. salvator, various turtles including Kachuga sylhetensis, snakes including Indian Cobra Naja naja and Indian Rock Python Python molurus. Assam Roof Turtle Kachuga sy lhetensis was also recorded for the first time in the area, constituting the easternmost limit of its distribution (Choudhury 1994).

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Swamp Francolin Francolinus gularis resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
White-winged Duck Asarcornis scutulata resident  2004  present  A1  Endangered 
Baer's Pochard Aythya baeri winter  2004  present  A1  Critically Endangered 
Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Greater Adjutant Leptoptilos dubius breeding  2004  present  A1  Endangered 
White-bellied Heron Ardea insignis resident  2004  present  A1  Critically Endangered 
Spot-billed Pelican Pelecanus philippensis resident  2004  present  A1  Near Threatened 
Pallas's Fish-eagle Haliaeetus leucoryphus resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis non-breeding  2004  present  A1  Critically Endangered 
Greater Spotted Eagle Clanga clanga winter  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Slender-billed Vulture Gyps tenuirostris non-breeding  2004  present  A1  Critically Endangered 
Bengal Florican Houbaropsis bengalensis resident  2004  present  A1  Critically Endangered 
Sarus Crane Antigone antigone resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Spotted Greenshank Tringa guttifer winter  2004  present  A1  Endangered 
Indian Skimmer Rynchops albicollis breeding  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Pale-capped Pigeon Columba punicea resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Marsh Babbler Pellorneum palustre resident  2004  present  A1, A2  Vulnerable 
Jerdon's Babbler Chrysomma altirostre resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Black-breasted Parrotbill Paradoxornis flavirostris resident  2004  present  A1, A2  Vulnerable 
Yellow Weaver Ploceus megarhynchus resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 

IBA Monitoring

2003 high not assessed not assessed
Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data

Agriculture and aquaculture annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) very rapid to severe deterioration low
Agriculture and aquaculture livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Biological resource use fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - unintentional effects: large scale happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) very rapid to severe deterioration low
Biological resource use logging & wood harvesting - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Climate change and severe weather storms and floods likely in short term (within 4 years) majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Human intrusions and disturbance work and other activities happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Natural system modifications dams & water management/use - abstraction of surface water (unknown use) happening now some of area/population (10-49%) very rapid to severe deterioration high
Residential and commercial development housing and urban areas happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) very rapid to severe deterioration low

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Dibru-Saikhowa National Park 34,000 protected area contained by site 34,000  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest   -
Grassland   -
Wetlands (inland)   -
Artificial - terrestrial   -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
fisheries/aquaculture -
Notes: Fishing
nature conservation and research -
Notes: Nature Conservation
tourism/recreation -
Notes: Tourism

Acknowledgements Key contributor: Anwaruddin Choudhury.


Ali, S. and Ripley, S. D. (1987) Compact Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan (Second Edition). Oxford University Press, Delhi.

Allen, D. (2002) A bird survey of the Amarpur area of the Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam, India. Forktail 18: 87-91.

Baker, E. C. S. (1904) The occurrence of the Masked Finfoot (Heliopais personata) in Lakhimpur. J. Bombay. Nat. Hist. Soc. 16: 156.

Choudhury, A. U. (1994) Report on Bird survey in Dibru-Saikhowa Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam. Final report to OBC, UK.

Choudhury, A. U. (1996) Survey of the White-winged wood duck and the Bengal Florican in Tinsukia district and adjacent areas of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh. The Rhino Foundation for Nature in Northeast India. Guwahati.

Choudhury, A. U. (1997) The Status of the Birds of Dibru-Saikhowa Sanctuary, Assam, India. OBC Bulletin 25: 27-29.

Choudhury, A. U. (1998) Mammals, birds and reptiles of Dibru-Saikhowa wildlife sanctuary, Assam, India. Oryx 32(3) 192-200.

Choudhury, A. U. (2002) Globally threatened birds in Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve. Himalayan Biosphere Reserves. Vol. 4(1&2): 49-54.

Green, A. J. (1992) The status and conservation of the White-Winged Wood Duck Cairina scutulata. IWRB Special Publication 17, Slimbridge, U.K.

Stattersfield, A. J., Crosby, M. J., Long, A. J. and Wege, D. C. (1998) Endemic Bird Areas of the World: Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 7. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Dibru - Saikhowa Complex. Downloaded from on 27/10/2016

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