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Location India, Arunachal Pradesh
Central coordinates 92o 22.63' East  27o 42.47' North
IBA criteria A1, A2
Area 30,000 ha
Altitude 2,000 - 5,000m
Year of IBA assessment 2004

Bombay Natural History Society

Site description This is another remote mountainous area at the trijunction of India, Bhutan and China (Tibet). Much of its border is under the control of the Army. Owing to altitudinal variation from 2,000 to >5,000 m, the forest cover varies from Temperate Conifer and Broadleaf to Subalpine and Alpine Scrub. It also has high altitudes lakes, good sites for breeding waterfowl of which Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea has been confirmed (A. U. Choudhury pers. comm. 2003).

Key Biodiversity 

AVIFAUNA: Detailed information on the bird life is not available. Singh (1999) and his team have seen 118 species during six days of bird watching in the Towang-Zeminthang area between 1,770 and 4,900 m above msl. They added the following species for Arunachal Pradesh from this site: Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus, Upland Buzzard Buteo hemilasius, White-browed Tit-Warbler Leptopoecile sophiae and Streaked Rosefinch Carpodacus rubicilloides.

This is the second site in Arunachal Pradesh where Black-necked Crane Grus nigricollis, a Vulnerable species (BirdLife International, 2001) is found (Choudhury 2000). The exact location where these cranes are found in winter is Zemithang Valley on the banks of Nyamjang Chu (Chu = river). Zeminthang is 95 km from Tawang and 250 km from the Sangti Valley by road, and only 20 km and 65 km respectively as the crow flies. Sangti Valley (an IBA) is another site where the Black-necked Crane is regularly found (Choudhury 2001). The Zemithang Valley is about 1.5 km long and 0.5 km wide, and at 2,000 m, compared to 1,500 m of the Sangti Valley. The local Buddhists revere and do not harm this species, locally called Thung-thung karmo. Since time immemorial, two to four birds visit this valley. Up to 7 have been reported earlier.

This site is also important for biome-restricted species. For Biome-5 (Eurasian High Montane - Alpine and Tibetan), found above 3,600 m, BirdLife International (undated) has listed 48 species. Of these, some interesting species found in this IBA are the Himalayan Griffon Gyps himalayensis, Snow Partridge Lerwa lerwa, Black-necked Crane Grus nigricollis, Ibisbill Ibidorhyncha struthersii, Snow Pigeon Columba leuconota, Grey-backed Shrike Lanius tephronotus, Blood Pheasant Ithaginis cruentus, and Satyr Tragopan Tragopan satyra.

The site is included in the Eastern Himalayas Endemic Bird Area (Stattersfield et al. 1998). BirdLife International (undated) has listed 21 species from this EBA. Seven species have been identified, but a thorough survey would reveal many more.

OTHER KEY FAUNA: High altitude mammals include Bharal Pseudois nayaur, Takin Budorcas taxicolor, Snow Leopard Uncia uncia, Goral Nemorhaedus goral, Musk Deer Moschus chrysogaster, Serow Naemorhedus sumatraensis, Asiatic Black Bear Ursus thibetanus and possibly Brown Bear Ursus arctos in the extreme north of this IBA. Red Panda Ailurus fulgens, Assamese Macaque Macaca assamensis and Capped Langur Trachypithecus pileatus also occur.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Black-necked Crane Grus nigricollis winter  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Ward's Trogon Harpactes wardi resident  2004  present  A2  Near Threatened 
Broad-tailed Grassbird Schoenicola platyurus resident  2004  present  A1, A2  Vulnerable 
Rufous-throated Wren-babbler Spelaeornis caudatus resident  2004  present  A2  Near Threatened 
Sphenocichla humei resident  2004  present  A2  Not Recognised 
Hoary-throated Barwing Actinodura nipalensis resident  2004  present  A2  Least Concern 
Ludlow's Fulvetta Alcippe ludlowi resident  2004  present  A2  Least Concern 
White-naped Yuhina Yuhina bakeri resident  2004  present  A2  Least Concern 
Beautiful Nuthatch Sitta formosa resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest   -
Shrubland   -
Wetlands (inland)   -

Acknowledgements Key contributors: Bharat Bhushan Bhatt, Anwaruddin Choudhury and Bablu Dey.


BirdLife International (2001) Threatened Birds of Asia: The BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K

BirdLife International (undated) Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in Asia: Project briefing book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K., Unpublished.

Choudhury, A. U. (2000) The Black-necked Crane in Arunachal Pradesh. The Twilight 2(2 & 3): 31-32.

Choudhury, A. U. (2001) Survey of Birds in Sangti-Shergaon-Kalaktang areas of West Kameng district, Arunachal Pradesh. Report submitted to Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai. Pp. 27.

Singh, P. (1999) Bird Survey in Selected Localities of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun. Pp. 92.

Stattersfield, A. J., Crosby, M. J., Long, A. J. and Wege, D. C. (1998) Endemic Bird Areas of the World: Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 7. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Zemithang - Nelya. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016

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