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Location India, Andhra Pradesh
Central coordinates 78o 40.20' East  14o 38.40' North
IBA criteria A1, A2
Area 46,400 ha
Altitude 150 - 784m
Year of IBA assessment 2004

Bombay Natural History Society

Site description Sri Lankamalleswara Wildlife Sanctuary, situated in the Lankamalai Hill ranges, is about 30 km from Cuddapah. This sanctuary was declared mainly for the Critically Endangered Jerdon’s Courser Rhinoptilus bitorquatus after its rediscovery in 1986 (Bhushan 1986). The major types of forest in this Sanctuary are Southern Tropical Thorn and Southern Tropical Dry Deciduous (Champion and Seth 1968). The Sanctuary bears dry deciduous forest in the higher elevations to scrub forest in the plains. Major floristic components of the scrub forest are thorny species of Acacia, Zizyphus and Carissa, and non-thorny species of Cassia, Hardwickia and Anogeissus. The Red Sandal Pterocarpus santalinus, endemic to Andhra Pradesh, occurs here.

Key Biodiversity 

AVIFAUNA: Nearly 200 bird species are found in this Sanctuary (P. Jeganathan and A. R. Rahmani in prep.). The Critically Endangered Jerdon’s Courser was restricted to a small patch of scrub jungle within this Sanctuary. Recent studies reveal that this bird is found in three more localities within the Sanctuary (Jeganathan 2002). The Sri Lankamalleswara Wildlife Sanctuary has been selected on the basis of presence of a single species. It is a Secondary Area where a single Restricted Range species is found (Stattersfield et al. 1998).

OTHER KEY FAUNA: Although the Sanctuary was declared with the sole purpose of protecting the habitat of the Jerdon’s Courser, many other species have benefited, perhaps more than the target species! Leopard Panthera pardus, Dhole or Indian Wild Dog Cuon alpinus, Sloth Bear Melursus ursinus, Chital Axis axis, Sambar Cervus unicolor, Chinkara Gazella bennettii and Wild Boar Sus scrofa are seen in the forested areas. Even the Wolf Canis lupus has been sighted a couple of times since the year 2000 (P. Jeganathan pers. comm. 2001).

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Jerdon's Courser Rhinoptilus bitorquatus resident  2004  present  A1, A2  Critically Endangered 

IBA Monitoring

2003 low not assessed not assessed
Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data

Agriculture and aquaculture annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) moderate to rapid deterioration low
Biological resource use hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - unintentional effects (species is not the target) happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) very rapid to severe deterioration low
Biological resource use logging & wood harvesting - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Energy production and mining mining and quarrying happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) very rapid to severe deterioration low
Invasive & other problematic species, genes & diseases invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - unspecified species happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Natural system modifications dams & water management/use - small dams happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Sri Lankamalleswaram Sanctuary 46,442 is identical to site 46,400  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest   -
Shrubland   -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
agriculture -
Notes: Agriculture

Acknowledgements Key contributor: Panchapakesan Jeganathan.


Bhushan, B. (1986) Rediscovery of the Jerdon’s Courser Cursorius bitorquatus. J. Bombay. Nat. Hist. Soc. 83: 1-14.

Champion, H. G. and Seth, S. K. (1968) A Revised Survey of the Forest Types of India. Government of India Press, New Delhi.

Jeganathan, P. (2002) Red Data bird revisited: Jerdon’s Courser. World Birdwatch 24(4): 19-21.

Stattersfield, A. J., Crosby, M. J., Long, A. J. and Wege, D. C. (1998) Endemic Bird Areas of the World, Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 7, BirdLife International, U.K.

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Sri Lankamalleswara Wildlife Sanctuary. Downloaded from on 24/10/2016

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