|Location||India, Andaman and Nicobar|
|Central coordinates||94o 16.68' East 13o 27.88' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A2|
|Altitude||0 - 40m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description Narcondam is a very small (681 ha) island, located about 140 km east of the nearest inhabited island Diglipur in the North Andaman group. The island is of volcanic origin and rises steeply to a central peak of 706 m. It is almost entirely covered with Evergreen and Moist Deciduous forest. Grassy slopes dominate the southern and southeast aspects of the hill (BirdLife International 2001). The island was notified as a sanctuary to protect the globally Threatened and highly endemic Narcondam Hornbill Aceros narcondami, which is restricted to this tiny island. As Narcondam Island is remote and difficult to reach, there have been only seven to eight visits by ornithologists to date: Osmaston (1905), Baker (1927), Abdulali (1971,1974), Hussain (1984), Vijayan and Sankaran, (2000) and Yahya and Zarri (2000, 2002a). The island is covered with Tropical Evergreen forest, Semievergreen forest, Moist Deciduous forest, Littoral forest and Mangrove forest (Pande et al. 1991). The island bears old, dead and decaying trees, interlaced with thorny creepers and luxuriantly flowering tall trees (Yahya and Zarri 2002a). The flora on the higher reaches of the hill is mostly evergreen and consists of Dipterocarpus, Sideroxylon and Ficus trees. However, some deciduous species (Bombax insigne) are also present. The vegetation towards the summit is mostly Moist Evergreen with several epiphytes. The lower hills following the shoreline have both deciduous and evergreen trees such as Terminalia catappa, T. bialata and Caryota mitis. The shoreline has some introduced species such as coconut and banana.
AVIFAUNA: Narcondam Island has the distinction of being the sole area of distribution of the Narcondam Hornbill. This hornbill has one of the smallest natural ranges of any bird species in the world (BirdLife International 2001). Thus it a high priority species for conservation. Hussain (1984) estimated a population of more than 400 birds, while Ravi Sankaran estimated the total to be around 330-360 birds. However, based on systematic line transect methods, Yahya and Zarri (2002a) estimated 432 birds, with an approximate density of 72 birds/sq. km. Flocks of up to 50 birds have also been reported congregating on fruiting figs on this island (Yahya and Zarri 2002a). Vijayan and Sankaran (2000) found that the hornbills were not distributed evenly. Higher densities were seen along the ridge that bisects the island and low densities were seen in the northern part of the island. This could be due to differences in availability of fruiting trees during the study area. Details of ecology and behaviour are given by Hussain (1984), Vijayan and Sankaran (2000) and Yahya and Zarri (2002a). The Andaman Scops Owl Otus balli is the other globally Threatened and Restricted Range bird species present on the island. Yahya and Zarri (2000b) recorded 22 species during their one month survey, including a sighting of 11 Fairy Terns Gygis alba. A specimen collected over a hundred years ago in the Bay of Bengal is the only record of this bird within Indian limits (Ali and Ripley 1987).
OTHER KEY FAUNA: As Narcondam is a tiny volcanic island, not connected to land mass, terrestrial mammalian fauna is absent. However, Nicobar Flying Fox Pteropus faunulus and Narcondam Small Flying Fox Pteropus hypomelanus are the most common mammals on this island. Among reptiles, Andaman Dwarf Gecko Cnemaspis kandiana, widely distributed in Andaman and Malay Archipelago, is also found on Narcondam Island. The Andaman Day Gecko Phelsuma andamanense, is also restricted in distribution to the Andaman group (Daniel 2002). The Common Amphibious Sea Snake Laticauda laticauda, confined to the Bay of Bengal and Nicobar Island, is seen here, while the Andaman Water Monitor Varanus salvator andamanensis is the only large predator on the island and is a threat to the Narcondam Hornbill, especially its young ones.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Andaman Scops-owl Otus balli||resident||2004||present||-||A2||Near Threatened|
|Narcondam Hornbill Rhyticeros narcondami||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A2||Endangered|
|2003||high||not assessed||not assessed|
|Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||very rapid to severe deterioration||low|
|Biological resource use||hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target)||past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting||small area/few individuals (<10%)||very rapid to severe deterioration||low|
|Biological resource use||logging & wood harvesting - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||low|
|Climate change and severe weather||storms and floods||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||very rapid to severe deterioration||low|
|Invasive & other problematic species, genes & diseases||invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - named species||happening now||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||slow but significant deterioration||high|
|Residential and commercial development||commercial and industrial development||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||very rapid to severe deterioration||low|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Narcondam Island||Sanctuary||681||is identical to site||681|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|Notes: Police outpost|
|nature conservation and research||-|
|Notes: Nature conservation and research|
Acknowledgements Key contributors: Ravi Sankaran, Ashfaq Ahmed Zarri and H. S. A. Yahya.
Abdulali, H. (1971) Narcondam island and notes on some birds from the Andaman islands. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc 68: 385-411.
Abdulali, H. (1974) The fauna of the Narcondam Island Part 1. Birds. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 71: 498-505.
Ali, S. and Ripley, S. D. (1987) Compact Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan (Second Edition). Oxford University Press, Delhi.
Baker, E. C. S. (1927) Fauna of British India. Vol. 4: 456.
BirdLife International (2001) Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book, BirdLife International Cambridge, U.K.
Daniel, J. C. (2002) The Book of Indian Reptiles and Amphibians. Bombay Natural History Society. Mumbai.
Hussain, S. A. (1984) Some aspects of the biology and ecology of Narcondam Hornbill (Rhyticeros narcondami). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 81 (1): 1-18
Osmaston, B. B. (1905) A visit to Narcondam. J. Bombay Nat. His. Soc. 16: 620-622.
Pande, P., Kothari, A. and Singh, S. (eds) (1991) Directory of National Parks and Sanctuaries in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Management Status and Profiles, Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi, India.
Vijayan, L. and Sankaran, R. (2000) A Study of the Ecology, Status and Conservation Perspectives of Certain Rare Endemic Avifauna of the Andaman & Nicobar Islands. Final Report. Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History, Coimbatore. PP. 184.
Yahya, H. S. A. and Zarri, A. A. (2000) Status, Ecology and Behaviour of Narcondam Hornbill (Aceros narcondami) in Narcondam Island, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Report submitted to the Department of Wildlife Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh. Pp 178.
Yahya, H. S. A. and Zarri, A. A. (2002a) Status, Ecology and Behaviour of Narcondam Hornbill (Aceros narcondami) in Narcondam Island, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. J. Bom. Nat. Hist. 99(3): 434- 445.
Yahya, H. S. A. and Zarri, A. A. (2002b) White Tern Gygis alba sighted at Narcondam Island, Bay of Bengal, India. Forktail 18: 148-149.
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