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Location Spain, Extremadura
Central coordinates 6o 45.00' West  39o 20.00' North
IBA criteria A1, A4i, A4ii, B1i, B1iii, B2, C1, C2, C3, C6
Area 295,000 ha
Altitude 270 - 703m
Year of IBA assessment 2000

SEO/BirdLife



Site description A large mountainous area on the border with Portugal. The site contains well-preserved Mediterranean vegetation, with Quercus woodland, dehesas, grassland, scrub and maquis. The main human activities are livestock-farming, game hunting and cork harvesting (`Other' land-use).

Key Biodiversity An important site for breeding storks, raptors and steppic species.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Black Stork Ciconia nigra passage  1996  100 individuals  poor  B1i, C2  Least Concern 
Black Stork Ciconia nigra breeding  1995  9 breeding pairs  good  B1i, C2  Least Concern 
Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis breeding  1994  1,100 breeding pairs  good  A4i, B1i, C3  Least Concern 
Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni breeding  1996  50 breeding pairs  medium  A1, B2, C1  Least Concern 
Black Kite Milvus migrans breeding  1996  100 breeding pairs  poor  B2, C6  Least Concern 
Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus breeding  1995  21 breeding pairs  good  B2, C6  Endangered 
Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus resident  1995  168 breeding pairs  good  A1, A4ii, B1iii, B2, C1, C2, C6  Near Threatened 
Spanish Imperial Eagle Aquila adalberti resident  1995  20 breeding pairs  good  A1, B2, C1, C2, C6  Vulnerable 
Booted Eagle Hieraaetus pennatus breeding  1995  50 breeding pairs  poor  B2, C6  Least Concern 
Bonelli's Eagle Aquila fasciata resident  1995  10 breeding pairs  good  B2, C6  Least Concern 
Griffon Vulture Gyps fulvus resident  1995  40 breeding pairs  good  C6  Least Concern 
Great Bustard Otis tarda resident  1996  150 breeding pairs  poor  A1, B2, C1, C2  Vulnerable 
Eurasian Eagle-owl Bubo bubo resident  1995  25 breeding pairs  poor  B2, C6  Least Concern 

IBA Monitoring

2008 very high favourable medium
  Population
Medium - based upon reliable but incomplete / partially representative data

Agricultural expansion and intensification livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Agricultural expansion and intensification wood and pulp plantations (includes afforestation) - small-holder plantations happening now some of area/population (10-49%) very rapid to severe deterioration high
Climate change and severe weather drought likely in short term (within 4 years) whole area/population (>90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Climate change and severe weather temperature extremes happening now whole area/population (>90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Energy production and mining renewable energy happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Human intrusions and disturbance recreational activities happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Human intrusions and disturbance work and other activities happening now whole area/population (>90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Invasive and other problematic species and genes introduced genetic material happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Natural system modifications dams & water management/use - abstraction of ground water (agricultural use) happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Natural system modifications other ecosystem modifications happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) very rapid to severe deterioration very high
Over-exploitation, persecution and control of species hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target) happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) very rapid to severe deterioration very high
Over-exploitation, persecution and control of species hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - persecution/control happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) very rapid to severe deterioration very high
Over-exploitation, persecution and control of species hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - unintentional effects (species is not the target) happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Over-exploitation, persecution and control of species logging & wood harvesting - unintentional effects: large scale happening now some of area/population (10-49%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Pollution agricultural & forestry effluents - herbicides and pesticides happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Pollution excess energy - noise pollution happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Transportation and service corridors roads and railroads happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Transportation and service corridors utility & service lines happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high

Ciconia nigra Black Stork 9 9 breeding pairs 100 favourable
Bubulcus ibis Cattle Egret 1100 1100 breeding pairs 100 favourable
Falco naumanni Lesser Kestrel 50 50 breeding pairs 100 favourable
Aquila fasciata Bonelli's Eagle 10 10 breeding pairs 100 favourable
Neophron percnopterus Egyptian Vulture 21 21 breeding pairs 100 favourable
Gyps fulvus Griffon Vulture 40 40 breeding pairs 100 favourable
Aegypius monachus Cinereous Vulture 168 168 breeding pairs 100 favourable
Aquila adalberti Spanish Imperial Eagle 20 20 breeding pairs 100 favourable
Hieraaetus pennatus Booted Eagle 50 50 breeding pairs 100 favourable
Milvus migrans 100 100 breeding pairs 100 favourable
Otis tarda Great Bustard 150 150 individuals 100 favourable
Bubo bubo Eurasian Eagle-owl 25 25 breeding pairs 100 favourable

Most of site (50-90%) covered (including the most critical parts for important bird species)  A management plan exists but it is out of date or not comprehensive  Substantive conservation measures are being implemented but these are not comprehensive and are limited by resources and capacity  medium 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
ARROYO DEL LUGAR - ES4320046 Habitats Directive 355 protected area overlaps with site 173  
CEDILLO Y RIO TAJO INTERNACIONAL - ES4320002 Habitats Directive 13,263 protected area overlaps with site 1,189  
COLONIAS DE CERNICALO PRIMILLA DE ALBURQUERQUE - ES0000430 Birds Directive 42 protected area contained by site 42  
COLONIAS DE CERNICALO PRIMILLA DE SAN VICENTE DE ALCANTARA - ES0000424 Birds Directive 3 protected area contained by site 3  
CORREDOR DEL LACARA - ES4310048 Habitats Directive 551 protected area overlaps with site 474  
EMBALSE DE CORNALVO Y SIERRA BERMEJA - ES0000069 Birds Directive 13,143 protected area is adjacent to site 0  
EMBALSE DE HORNO-TEJERO - ES0000396 Birds Directive 265 protected area contained by site 265  
LLANOS DE CÁCERES Y SIERRA DE FUENTES - ES0000071 Birds Directive 70,022 protected area is adjacent to site 0  
NACIMIENTO DEL RIO GEVORA - ES0000407 Birds Directive 20,024 protected area contained by site 20,024  
RIO ALJUCEN BAJO - ES4310017 Habitats Directive 402 protected area is adjacent to site 0  
RIO GEVORA ALTO - ES4310022 Habitats Directive 2,721 protected area overlaps with site 2,377  
RIO SALOR - ES4320030 Habitats Directive 391 protected area overlaps with site 59  
RIO TAJO INTERNACIONAL Y RIBEROS - ES0000368 Birds Directive 20,271 protected area overlaps with site 1,817  
RIVERA DE AURELA - ES4320073 Habitats Directive 497 protected area overlaps with site 294  
RIVERA DE MEMBRIO - ES4320074 Habitats Directive 436 protected area overlaps with site 185  
RIVERAS DE CARBAJO Y CALATRUCHA - ES4320075 Habitats Directive 372 protected area overlaps with site 19  
RIVERAS DE LOS MOLINOS Y LA TORRE - ES4320033 Habitats Directive 307 protected area overlaps with site 137  
SIERRA DE SAN PEDRO - ES0000070 Birds Directive 115,032 protected area contained by site 115,032  

Local conservation groups The local conservation groups below are working to support conservation at this IBA.

Name Year formed
FUNDACIÓN CB HABITAT (MMA) 0
ADENEX 0
CES 0
MUNDOBRIGA 0

Habitats

IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest Broadleaved evergreen woodland  -
Shrubland   -
Wetlands (inland) Rivers and streams; Standing brackish and salt water  -
Rocky areas Inland cliffs  -
Artificial - terrestrial Forestry plantations; Perennial crops, orchards and groves  -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
agriculture -
hunting -
other -

Protection status National None International Partial83,217 ha of IBA covered by Special Protection Area (Sierra de San Pedro, 83,217 ha).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: San Pedro mountain range. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/12/2014

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife