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Location Spain, Extremadura
Central coordinates 5o 45.00' West  39o 40.00' North
IBA criteria A1, A3, A4ii, B1i, B1iii, B2, C1, C2, C6
Area 155,000 ha
Altitude 320 - 839m
Year of IBA assessment 2000

SEO/BirdLife



Site description The site encompasses a range of hills with many cliffs and gullies and the Rivers Tajo and Tiétar. There are extensive areas of dense sclerophyllous scrub, small Quercus-dominated woodlands and areas of dehesa, as well as some Eucalyptus plantations.

Key Biodiversity This is a very important area for breeding raptors, particularly Aegypius monachus and also for Ciconia nigra. Breeding birds include seven of the 20 species in Europe that are restricted to the Mediterranean biome (when breeding).

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Black Stork Ciconia nigra breeding  1995  31 breeding pairs  good  B1i, B2, C2, C6  Least Concern 
Purple Heron Ardea purpurea breeding  1994  60 breeding pairs  good  B2, C2, C6  Least Concern 
Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus resident  1995  214 breeding pairs  good  A1, A4ii, B1iii, B2, C1, C2, C6  Near Threatened 
Black-winged Kite Elanus caeruleus resident  1992  10 breeding pairs  poor  B2, C6  Least Concern 
Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus breeding  1995  22 breeding pairs  good  B2, C6  Endangered 
Griffon Vulture Gyps fulvus resident  1995  377 breeding pairs  good  A4ii, B1iii, B2, C2, C6  Least Concern 
Short-toed Snake-eagle Circaetus gallicus breeding  1992  15 breeding pairs  poor  C6  Least Concern 
Spanish Imperial Eagle Aquila adalberti resident  1995  10-11 breeding pairs  good  A1, B2, C1, C2, C6  Vulnerable 
Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos resident  1995  7-8 breeding pairs  good  C6  Least Concern 
Bonelli's Eagle Aquila fasciata resident  1995  7 breeding pairs  good  B2, C6  Least Concern 
Eurasian Eagle-owl Bubo bubo resident  1992  20 breeding pairs  poor  C6  Least Concern 
Red-necked Nightjar Caprimulgus ruficollis breeding  1996  frequent  A3  Least Concern 
Spectacled Warbler Sylvia conspicillata resident  1996  abundant  A3  Least Concern 
Sardinian Warbler Sylvia melanocephala resident  1996  abundant  A3  Least Concern 
Subalpine Warbler Sylvia cantillans breeding  1996  abundant  A3  Least Concern 
Spotless Starling Sturnus unicolor resident  1996  abundant  A3  Least Concern 
Black Wheatear Oenanthe leucura resident  1996  frequent  A3  Least Concern 
Black-eared Wheatear Oenanthe hispanica breeding  1996  common  A3  Least Concern 

IBA Monitoring

2008 very high favourable negligible
  Population
Medium - based upon reliable but incomplete / partially representative data

Agricultural expansion and intensification livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming happening now some of area/population (10-49%) very rapid to severe deterioration high
Climate change and severe weather habitat shifting and alteration happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Energy production and mining renewable energy likely in short term (within 4 years) some of area/population (10-49%) very rapid to severe deterioration high
Human intrusions and disturbance recreational activities happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Human intrusions and disturbance work and other activities happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Invasive and other problematic species and genes invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - unspecified species happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) very rapid to severe deterioration very high
Natural system modifications other ecosystem modifications happening now some of area/population (10-49%) very rapid to severe deterioration high
Over-exploitation, persecution and control of species hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target) happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) very rapid to severe deterioration very high
Over-exploitation, persecution and control of species hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - persecution/control happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Pollution agricultural & forestry effluents - type unknown/unrecorded happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Pollution domestic & urban waste water - type unknown/unrecorded happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) very rapid to severe deterioration very high
Pollution garbage & solid waste happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Residential and commercial development housing and urban areas happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) moderate to rapid deterioration low
Residential and commercial development tourism and recreation areas happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) moderate to rapid deterioration low
Transportation and service corridors roads and railroads happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Transportation and service corridors utility & service lines happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high

Ciconia nigra Black Stork 31 31 breeding pairs 100 favourable
Ardea purpurea Purple Heron 60 60 breeding pairs 100 favourable
Gyps fulvus Griffon Vulture 377 377 breeding pairs 100 favourable
Aegypius monachus Cinereous Vulture 214 214 breeding pairs 100 favourable
Aquila adalberti Spanish Imperial Eagle 10 10 breeding pairs 100 favourable
Elanus caeruleus Black-winged Kite 10 10 breeding pairs 100 favourable
Aquila chrysaetos Golden Eagle 7 7 breeding pairs 100 favourable
Neophron percnopterus Egyptian Vulture 22 22 breeding pairs 100 favourable
Aquila fasciata Bonelli's Eagle 7 7 breeding pairs 100 favourable
Circaetus gallicus 15 15 breeding pairs 100 favourable
Bubo bubo Eurasian Eagle-owl 20 20 breeding pairs 100 favourable

Some of site covered (10-49%)  Not assessed  Not assessed  negligible 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
ARROYOS BARBAON Y CALZONES - ES4320060 Habitats Directive 1,797 protected area contained by site 1,797  
EMBALSE DE ARROCAMPO - ES0000324 Birds Directive 687 protected area contained by site 687  
Monfragüe Nature Park 17,852 protected area contained by site 17,852  
MONFRAGÜE - ES4320077 Habitats Directive 18,396 protected area contained by site 18,396  
MONFRAGÜE Y LAS DEHESAS DEL ENTORNO - ES0000014 Birds Directive 116,151 protected area overlaps with site 97,777  
RIBEROS DEL ALMONTE - ES0000356 Birds Directive 8,363 protected area overlaps with site 554  
RIO ALMONTE - ES4320018 Habitats Directive 8,730 protected area overlaps with site 691  
RIO TIETAR - ES4320031 Habitats Directive 6,227 protected area overlaps with site 669  

Habitats

IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest Alluvial and very wet forest; Broadleaved evergreen woodland; Mixed woodland  26%
Shrubland Sclerophyllous scrub, garrigue and maquis  26%
Grassland Dry siliceous grassland  -
Wetlands (inland) Rivers and streams; Standing freshwater  -
Artificial - terrestrial Arable land; Forestry plantations  -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
agriculture 26%
forestry -
hunting -
tourism/recreation -
other -

Protection status National Partial International Partial17,852 ha of IBA covered by Natural Park (Monfragüe, 17,852 ha). 17,852 ha of IBA covered by Special Protection Area (Monfragüe, 17,852 ha).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Monfragüe. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/12/2014

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife