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Location Spain, Castilla y León,Comunidad de Madrid
Central coordinates 4o 10.00' West  40o 30.00' North
IBA criteria A1, B1i, B2, C1, C2, C6
Area 198,400 ha
Altitude 650 - 1,754m
Year of IBA assessment 2000

SEO/BirdLife



Site description The site includes the Sistema Central between Puerto de Guadarrama and Gredos. Vegetation includes dehesa woodland, grassland and scrub, small areas of Quercus and Pinus woodland and arable cultivation.

Key Biodiversity This is an important area for breeding and passage raptors and storks.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Black Stork Ciconia nigra breeding  1996  5-6 breeding pairs  good  B1i, C2, C6  Least Concern 
Black Stork Ciconia nigra passage  1996  33 individuals  good  B1i, C2  Least Concern 
White Stork Ciconia ciconia breeding  1992  93-98 breeding pairs  medium  C6  Least Concern 
Spanish Imperial Eagle Aquila adalberti resident  1996  22 breeding pairs  good  A1, B2, C1, C2, C6  Vulnerable 
Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus breeding  1996  9 breeding pairs  good  A1, B2, C1, C6  Near Threatened 
Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos resident  1996  6 breeding pairs  good  C6  Least Concern 
Bonelli's Eagle Aquila fasciata breeding  1992  1 breeding pairs  good  C6  Least Concern 
Griffon Vulture Gyps fulvus resident  1996  28 breeding pairs  good  C6  Least Concern 
Booted Eagle Hieraaetus pennatus breeding  1992  15 breeding pairs  medium  C6  Least Concern 

IBA Monitoring

2007 very high not assessed low
  unset
Medium - based upon reliable but incomplete / partially representative data

Agricultural expansion and intensification annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Agricultural expansion and intensification livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - agro-industry grazing, ranching or farmin happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Climate change and severe weather habitat shifting and alteration happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Human intrusions and disturbance recreational activities happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Human intrusions and disturbance work and other activities happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Invasive and other problematic species and genes invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - named species happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Natural system modifications fire & fire suppression - increase in fire frequency/intensity happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Over-exploitation, persecution and control of species hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target) happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Pollution domestic & urban waste water - type unknown/unrecorded happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Pollution excess energy - light pollution happening now some of area/population (10-49%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Pollution excess energy - noise pollution happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Pollution garbage & solid waste happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Residential and commercial development commercial and industrial development happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Residential and commercial development housing and urban areas happening now some of area/population (10-49%) very rapid to severe deterioration high
Residential and commercial development tourism and recreation areas happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) very rapid to severe deterioration very high
Transportation and service corridors roads and railroads happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium

Forest Broadleaved deciduous woodland  0 0 very poor (< 40%) good (> 90%) very unfavourable
Forest Broadleaved evergreen woodland  0 0 very poor (< 40%) moderate (70-90%) very unfavourable

Most of site (50-90%) covered (including the most critical parts for important bird species)  Not assessed  Some limited conservation initiatives are in place  low 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
CAMPO AZÁLVARO-PINARES DE PEGUERINOS - ES0000189 Birds Directive 28,374 protected area overlaps with site 27,383  
CAMPO AZÁLVARO-PINARES DE PEGUERINOS - ES4110097 Habitats Directive 25,961 protected area overlaps with site 26,132  
CERRO DE GUISANDO - ES0000185 Birds Directive 3,655 protected area is adjacent to site 0  
CERRO DE GUISANDO - ES4110113 Habitats Directive 3,489 protected area is adjacent to site 0  
Cuenca del r Habitats Directive 34,038 protected area overlaps with site 12,693  
Cuencas de los r Habitats Directive 82,919 protected area overlaps with site 78,286  
Encinares del r Birds Directive 83,156 protected area overlaps with site 78,340  
PINAR DE ALMOROX - ES0000391 Birds Directive 1,491 protected area overlaps with site 659  
PINARES DEL BAJO ALBERCHE - ES0000186 Birds Directive 50,259 protected area overlaps with site 22,400  
PINARES DEL BAJO ALBERCHE - ES4110114 Habitats Directive 49,481 protected area overlaps with site 22,000  
SIERRA DE GUADARRAMA - ES0000010 Birds Directive 69,090 protected area is adjacent to site 0  
SIERRA DE GUADARRAMA - ES4160109 Habitats Directive 69,660 protected area is adjacent to site 0  
SIERRA DE SAN VICENTE Y VALLES DEL TIETAR Y ALBERCHE - ES4250001 Habitats Directive 117,539 protected area is adjacent to site 0  
VALLE DE IRUELAS - ES0000116 Birds Directive 8,619 protected area is adjacent to site 0  
VALLE DEL TIÉTAR - ES0000184 Birds Directive 64,377 protected area is adjacent to site 0  
VALLE DEL TIÉTAR - ES4110115 Habitats Directive 63,355 protected area is adjacent to site 0  

Habitats

IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest Alluvial and very wet forest; Broadleaved deciduous woodland; Broadleaved evergreen woodland; Treeline ecotone  26%
Shrubland Sclerophyllous scrub, garrigue and maquis  26%
Grassland Dry siliceous grassland  -
Wetlands (inland) Rivers and streams; Standing freshwater  -
Rocky areas Scree & boulders  -
Artificial - terrestrial Arable land; Perennial crops, orchards and groves; Ruderal land  -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
forestry 26%
urban/industrial/transport -
water management -
hunting 26%
agriculture 26%
tourism/recreation 26%

Protection status National None International Partial61,600 ha of IBA covered by Special Protection Area (Encinares de los ríos Alberche y Cofío, 61,600 ha).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: El Escorial-San Martín de Valdeiglesias. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/12/2014

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife