|Central coordinates||101o 0.00' East 6o 5.00' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A3|
|Altitude||100 - 1,260m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Summary Located in the state of Kedah where it ranges from the northern, central and southern part of the state. There are several forest reserves and three dams situated in the area. It is an important water catchment area for the northern region of Peninsular Malaysia.
Site description (I) Physical CharacteristicsThe Ulu Muda forests encompass two Forest Reserves; the Ulu Muda Forest Reserve (105,060 ha) and Pedu Forest Reserve (15,540 ha). Three dams, the Pedu, Muda and Beris Dam and are situated within the forest reserves, forming large freshwater lakes. The Muda Dam supplies water to the Muda Ricefields Irrigation Project, covering about 100,000 ha of fertile coastal plains within Kedah and Perlis State, more than 50 km downstream (MNS, 2002). The terrain around Tasik Muda is generally flat and hilly towards the north, south and east. Several rivers, Sungai Teliang, Sungai Muda, Sungai Lasor, Sungai Baho, Sungai Pior and Sungai Weng drain the area. Gunung Bayu (777 m asl), Bukit Batu (953 m asl) and Gunung Batu Putih (821 m asl) are some of the highest peaks in the forest reserves (Bourke, 2000; DWNP, 1991, 1993).(II) Climatic ConditionsThe area experiences two dry seasons from January to February and June to Julai annually (DWNP, 1993).
Key Biodiversity Due to its size, the area is important to biome species for Peninsula Malaysia and several globally threatened species especially the Straw-headed Bulbul, currently threatened by the cage bird trade. Surveys have documented 174 bird species in the forest reserve (Department of Wildlife and National Parks 1993; Noramly et al 2001). The area has the potential to be developed as a trans-boundary protected area with neighbouring Thailand. The protection of the area will ensure the survival a unique habitat and flora and fauna. The Ulu Muda forests is nominated under two categories; A1. Globally Threatened Species and A3. Biome-Restricted Assemblages.Good representation of lowland forest specialist, significant number of NT birds, high number of hornbills (7 out of ten) (Noramly and Lim, 2002)NT birds: Grey-headed Fish-eagle, Lesser Fish-eagle (Lim, 2003c), Oriental Darter (1 location in peninsula), Great Hornbill (Lim, 2003c)Only known breeding population of Hooded Pitta (Pitta sordida muelleri) in the peninsula
Non-bird biodiversity: Surveys by the Bourke (2000), DWNP (1991, 1993), Juliana et al. (2002), Stevens (1968), Norhayati et al. (2002) and Norsham et al. (1999) showed that the area contains populations of large mammals due to the presence of saltlicks in the area.17 species of large mammals were recorded.12 species of small mammals recorded and another eleven species was detected from transects.13 species of amphibians and one reptile.20 species of freshwater fishes from nine families.The Ulu Muda forests may serve as an important link to the between Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand for the free movement of wildlife. (I) Globally threatened mammals (IUCN, 2002): CRITICAL: Sumatran Rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis; ENDANGERED: Tiger Panthera tigris, Asian Elephant Elephas maximus, Malayan Tapir Tapirus indicus; VULNERABLE: Golden Cat Catopuma temminckii, Pig-tailed Macaque Macaca nemestrina, Clouded Leopard Neofelis nebulosa, Gaur Bos gaurus, Serow Capricornis sumatraensis, Smooth Otter Lutrogale perspicillata, Common Porcupine Hystrix brachyura, Ridley's Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros ridleyi; NEAR THREATENED: Banded Leaf-Monkey Presbytis melalophos, Long-tailed Macaque M. fascicularis, White-handed Gibbon Hylobates lar, Agile Gibbon H. agilis, Pangolin Manis javanica, Oriental Small-clawed Otter Amblonyx cinereus, Least Forest Bat Kerivoula minuta, Schreibers' Bat Miniopterus schreibersii; DATA DEFICIENT: Malayan Sun Bear Helarctos malayanus(II) Globally threatened reptiles (IUCN, 2002): No information.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Masked Finfoot Heliopais personatus||non-breeding||2004||present||-||A1||Endangered|
|Short-toed Coucal Centropus rectunguis||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Alcedo euryzona||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Not Recognised|
|Plain-pouched Hornbill Rhyticeros subruficollis||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Straw-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus zeylanicus||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Chebar||Forest Reserve||8,724||protected area contained by site||8,724|
|Padang Terap||Forest Reserve||13,384||protected area contained by site||13,384|
|Pedu||Forest Reserve||15,360||protected area contained by site||15,360|
|Ulu Muda||Forest Reserve||48,933||protected area contained by site||48,933|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
Protection status The area was gazetted in 1932 to protect the Sungai Muda water catchment area for the Muda Ricefields Irrigation Project. The project was designed to channel water to the ricefields that covered 100,000 ha of fertile Kedah and Perlis coastal plains, more than 50km downstream. The Ulu Muda forests were proposed to be gazetted as a National Park under the recommendation of Stevens (1968) in 1989 but was turned down by the Kedah State Government. The area has been identified as having ecotourism potential (MOCAT, 1996). Currently, the forest reserves have been proposed for gazettement as a National Park under the National Park Act 226/1980. Efforts are currently underway by WWFM to assist the Kedah State Government to enhance the protection of the reserve, either through better management or by gazetting a State Park.
References Anon. (compiler). 2002. Appendix: Ulu Muda Bird Checklist. In Reza Azmi (ed.). Biodiversity of Ulu Muda Forest Reserve. Birds as an indicator for conservation., pp. 29-34. Petaling Jaya: WWF Malaysia.Bourke, W.M. 2000. Escape to the Great Outdoors of West Malaysia. Malaysia: High Adventure Publishing Sdn Bhd.DWNP. No date. Cadangan Penubuhan Taman Negara Ulu Muda, Kedah. Peninsular Malaysia: Department of Wildlife and National Parks. (Unpublished)DWNP. 1993. Inventori Hidupan Liar Hutan Rezab Ulu Muda Kedah. Penisular Malaysia: Department of Wildlife and National Parks. (Unpublished)Gregory-Smith, G. 1995. Birds of Perlis and Kedah, including Langkawi: an annotated checklist. Universiti Sarawak Malaysia: Institute of Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation.IUCN. 2002. 2002 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.redlist.org (23 June 2003).Juliana, S., Norhayati, A., Sinnappah-Kang, N.D. and Nordin, M. 2002. High Anuran Diversity in the Sungai Weng Sub-catchment, Ulu Muda Forest Reserve, Kedah. In Omar, R., Ali Rahman, Z., Latif, M.T., Lihan, T. and J.H. Adam (eds.). Proceedings of the Regional Symposium on Environment and Natural Resources, pp. 536-541. 10-11 April 2002, Kuala Lumpur. Vol 1.Lim, B. L. 2002. Distribution and food-habits of the Golden Cat (Catopuma temminckii) in Peninsular Malaysia). Journal of Wildlife and National Parks 20: 43-48.Lim, K.C. (compiler) 2003c. Recent Sightings. Suara Enggang 3 (May-June): 23-42.MNS. 2002. Part Two. Ulu Muda: One of Malaysia's Important Bird Conservation Site. In Reza Azmi (ed.). Biodiversity of Ulu Muda Forest Reserve. Birds as an indicator for conservation., pp. 15-18. Petaling Jaya: WWF Malaysia.MOCAT. 1996. National Ecotourism Plan Malaysia. Prepared for the Ministry of Culture, Arts and Tourism, Federal Government of Malaysia. Neoh, C.B. 1998. Birding around Desa Utara Pedu Lake, Kedah. Suara Enggang 5: 32-33.Noramly, G. 2001. Ulu Muda Bird Checklist. (Unpublished)Noramly, G. and Lim, K.C. 2002. Part One: The Bird Fauna of Ulu Muda and Pedu: A Preliminary Survey. In Reza Azmi (ed.). Biodiversity of Ulu Muda Forest Reserve. Birds as an indicator for conservation., pp. 5-13. Petaling Jaya: WWF Malaysia.Noramly, G., Lim, K.C. and Reza Azmi. 2001. Bird List of Ulu Muda Forest Reserve, Kedah. (Unpublished).Norhayati, A., Sinnappah-Kang, N.D., Juliana, S. and Nordin, M. 2002. Effects of Selective Logging on Amphibian Biodiversity and Abundance in the Sungai Weng Sub-catchment, Ulu Muda Forest Reserve, Kedah, Malaysia: Preliminary Results. In Omar, R., Ali Rahman, Z., Latif, M.T., Lihan, T. and J.H. Adam (eds.). Proceedings of the Regional Symposium on Environment and Natural Resources, pp. 313-322. 10-11 April 2002, Kuala Lumpur. Vol 1.Norsham, Y., Fuad Shariff, Norhayati, A., Nordin, M. and Lim, B.L. 1999. Pre-Logging Survey of Mammal Fauna at Sungai Weng Sub-Catchment, Ulu Muda Forest Reserve, Kedah. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 17: 28-43.Proposal to heli-log water catchment areas in Kedah. Kedah, Penang and Perlis' Water Supply in Jeopardy. 2002. Utusan Konsumer August: 10.Stevens, W.E. 1968. The Conservation of Wildlife in West Malaysia. Seremban: Office of the Chief Game Warden, Federal Game Department, Ministry of Lands and Mines.Tan, A. 2002. Two-phase logging in Kedah with 'heli-harvesting'. The Star, 19 November.Zamri, R. and Mohamed, Z. 2002. Immediate Effects of Selective Logging on the Feeding Guild of the Understorey Insectivorous Birds in Ulu Muda Forest Reserve, Kedah, Malaysia. In Omar, R., Ali Rahman, Z., Latif, M.T., Lihan, T. and J.H. Adam (eds.). Proceedings of the Regional Symposium on Environment and Natural Resources, pp. 737-744. 10-11 April 2002, Kuala Lumpur. Vol 1.
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