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Location Malaysia, Sabah
Central coordinates 117o 57.00' East  4o 27.00' North
IBA criteria A1, A2, A3
Area 27,984 ha
Altitude 30 - 1,310m
Year of IBA assessment 2004

Malaysian Nature Society



Site description (I) Physical CharacteristicsTawau Hills Park is located in south-eastern Sabah and is bounded by the Ulu Kalumpang Forest Reserve on the northern side and Mount Andrassy Forest Reserve on the south. The eastern and western sides are bordered by agricultural lands mainly cocoa and oil palm plantations. The terrain within the park is quite rugged and hilly with three main peaks in the form of extinct volcanoes namely; Gunung Magdalena (1,310 m asl), Gunung Lucia (1,189 m asl) and Gunung Maria (1,067 m asl). The mountains consist of Quaternary pyroclastics and lava flows of dacitic, andesitic and basaltic character (Tjia et al., 1995) with subordinate Early Neogene sedimentary rocks of the Kalumpang Formation (Sanudin Haji Tahir, 1995). Only about 8% of the park area lie above 915 m asl, while more than half of the park area is below 457 m asl. The southern perimeter contains some of the last remaining non-swampy land under primary forest in Sabah (Siraj Omar and Jamili Nais, 1995).Seven important rivers with water catchment areas are confined largely or entirely within the park boundary. They are Sungai Tawau and Sungai Kinabutan in the centre, Sungai Mantri and Sungai Balung in the east and Sungai Merotai Kanan, Sungai Merotai Kecil and Sungai Junap (a tributary of Sungai Merotai Besar) in the west. Sungai Tawau is the main river in the park (Lee, 1995; Siraj Omar and Jamili Nais, 1995).(II) Climatic ConditionsTawau Hills experiences the north-east monsoon between November and March and south-west monsoon during the months of May to September. There are also two successive inter-monsoons; April to May and September to October. The mean temperature is 27oC (1990-97) with a relative humidity of 85% (1990-95). About 146 mm of rain falls monthly (1990-97).

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Wattled Pheasant Lophura bulweri 2004  present [units unknown]  A1  Vulnerable 
Blue-banded Kingfisher Alcedo euryzona 2004  present [units unknown]  A1  Vulnerable 
Blue-headed Pitta Pitta baudii 2004  present [units unknown]  A1  Vulnerable 
Bornean Wren-babbler Ptilocichla leucogrammica 2004  present [units unknown]  A1  Vulnerable 
Large-billed Blue-flycatcher Cyornis caerulatus 2004  present [units unknown]  A1  Vulnerable 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Mount Andrassy Protection Forest Reserve 3,595 protected area is adjacent to site 0  
Tawau Hill Park Park 28,046 is identical to site 27,984  
Ulu Kalumpang Protection Forest Reserve 51,337 protected area contains site 27,984  

Habitats

IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest   -

Protection status The Tawau Hills area was gazetted as a State Park on 7th May 1979 under the National Parks Ordinance 1962 but now protected under the Parks Enactment 1984 with primary aim to protect the headwaters and catchment areas, especially Sungai Merotai, Sungai Tawau, Sungai Kinabutann, Sungai Mantri and Sungai Balung, for Tawau and the Semporna peninsula (Regis, 2001). Protection of the park ensured the preservation of areas of scenic beauty for amenity and recreational purposes and lowland forests as a wildlife sanctuary. Tawau Hills Park also functions as a 'biological corridor' as there as it is linked to other forest reserves, such as the Ulu Kalumpang Forest Reserve to the north, which opens to the Ulu Segama Forest Reserve and the vast forested areas in the interior of Sabah. The park has been classified as an IUCN Category II protected area.

References Aziz Bidin, A. and Jaman, R. 1995. The Pteridophytes of Tawau Hills Park, Sabah. In Ghazally Ismail, Siraj Omar and Laily bin Din. (eds.). A scientific journey through Borneo - Tawau Hills Park, Sabah, pp. 127-138. Malaysia: Pelanduk Publications (M) Sdn Bhd.BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. Cambridge: BirdLife InternationalColenutt, S. 2002. Little-known Oriental bird: Bornean Bristlehead Pityriasis gymnocephala. OBC Bulletin 35: 75-77.Fatimah Hj. Abang, Hamid Ahmad, A., Nordin Wahid and Chong, K.S. 1995. A Preliminary Survey of Butterflies of the Tawau Hills Park, Sabah. In Ghazally Ismail, Siraj Omar and Laily bin Din. (eds.). A scientific journey through Borneo - Tawau Hills Park, Sabah, pp. 191-196. Malaysia: Pelanduk Publications (M) Sdn Bhd.Halijah Ibrahim. 1995. Zingiberaceous Species of Tawau Hills Park, Sabah. In Ghazally Ismail, Siraj Omar and Laily bin Din. (eds.). A scientific journey through Borneo - Tawau Hills Park, Sabah, pp. 95-106. Malaysia: Pelanduk Publications (M) Sdn Bhd.IUCN. 2002. 2002 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.redlist.org (23 June 2003).Julius Kulip. 1995. A Preliminary Survey of the Commercial Trees of Tawau Hills Park, Sabah. In Ghazally Ismail, Siraj Omar and Laily bin Din. (eds.). A scientific journey through Borneo - Tawau Hills Park, Sabah, pp. 61-64. Malaysia: Pelanduk Publications (M) Sdn Bhd.Latiff, A., Sukup Akin, Zainal Awang, Hamid Salleh and Ahmed Zainuddin Ibrahim. 1995. Notes on the Flowering Plants of Tawau Hills Park, Sabah. In Ghazally Ismail, Siraj Omar and Laily bin Din. (eds.). A scientific journey through Borneo - Tawau Hills Park, Sabah, pp. 65-84. Malaysia: Pelanduk Publications (M) Sdn Bhd.Lee, Y.H. 1995. Water Quality of Rivers in Tawau Hills Park Water Catchment, Sabah. In Ghazally Ismail, Siraj Omar and Laily bin Din. (eds.). A scientific journey through Borneo - Tawau Hills Park, Sabah, pp. 51-60. Malaysia: Pelanduk Publications (M) Sdn Bhd.Lee Nyanti, Mazlan A. Ghafar and Abdullah Samad. 1995. An Ichthyological Survey of Tawau Hills Park, Sabah. In Ghazally Ismail, Siraj Omar and Laily bin Din. (eds.). A scientific journey through Borneo - Tawau Hills Park, Sabah, pp. 173-190. Malaysia: Pelanduk Publications (M) Sdn Bhd.Lim, W.H. 1995. A Preliminary Survey of Orchids in Tawau Hills Park, Sabah. In Ghazally Ismail, Siraj Omar and Laily bin Din. (eds.). A scientific journey through Borneo - Tawau Hills Park, Sabah, pp. 107-126. Malaysia: Pelanduk Publications (M) Sdn Bhd.Maryati Mohamed. 1995. A Preliminary List of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Tawau Hills Park, Sabah. In Ghazally Ismail, Siraj Omar and Laily bin Din. (eds.). A scientific journey through Borneo - Tawau Hills Park, Sabah, pp. 205-213. Malaysia: Pelanduk Publications (M) Sdn Bhd.Peter Malim, Benjamin Taraan and Supin Tadsun. 1995. Notes on the Primates in Tawau Hills Park, Sabah. In Ghazally Ismail, Siraj Omar and Laily bin Din. (eds.). A scientific journey through Borneo - Tawau Hills Park, Sabah, pp. 163-172. Malaysia: Pelanduk Publications (M) Sdn Bhd.Regis, P. 2001. The Management of Protected Areas in Sabah. Pp. 67-98 in Zahra Yaacob, Moo-Tan, S. and S. Yorath (eds.). Proceedings of the International Conference on In-situ and Ex-situ Biodiversity Conservation in the New Millennium, 20-22 June 2000, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. Kota Kinabalu: Yayasan Sabah/Innoprise Corporation Sdn. Bhd. And Sabah Museum. Sanudin Hj. Tahir. 1995. Geology and Geothermal Potential of Tawau Hills Park, Sabah. In Ghazally Ismail, Siraj Omar and Laily bin Din. (eds.). A scientific journey through Borneo - Tawau Hills Park, Sabah, pp. 31-44. Malaysia: Pelanduk Publications (M) Sdn Bhd.Sheldon, F.H., Moyle, R.G. and Kennard, J. 2001. Ornithology of Sabah: History, Gazetteer, Annotated Checklist, and Bibliography. Ornithological Monographs 52: 1-285.Siraj, O. and Jamili, N. 1995. Tawau Hills Park: An Overview. In Ghazally Ismail, Siraj Omar and Laily bin Din. (eds.). A scientific journey through Borneo - Tawau Hills Park, Sabah, pp. 1-6. Malaysia: Pelanduk Publications (M) Sdn Bhd.Stuebing, R.B. and Shukor Mohd Nor. 1995. Notes of the Terrestrial Vertebrate Fauna of Tawau Hills Park, Sabah. In Ghazally Ismail, Siraj Omar and Laily bin Din. (eds.). A scientific journey through Borneo - Tawau Hills Park, Sabah, pp. 151-162. Malaysia: Pelanduk Publications (M) Sdn Bhd.Tjia, H.D., Ibrahim Komoo, Che Aziz Ali and Sanudin Hj. Tahir. 1995. Geology of Tawau Hills Park, Sabah. In Ghazally Ismail, Siraj Omar and Laily bin Din. (eds.). A scientific journey through Borneo - Tawau Hills Park, Sabah, pp. 7-30. Malaysia: Pelanduk Publications (M) Sdn Bhd.Zaidi, M.I. and Ruslan, M.Y. 1995. Cicadas of Tawau Hills Park, Sabah: A Preliminary Survey. In Ghazally Ismail, Siraj Omar and Laily bin Din. (eds.). A scientific journey through Borneo - Tawau Hills Park, Sabah, pp. 197-204. Malaysia: Pelanduk Publications (M) Sdn Bhd.

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Tawau Hills Park. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/04/2014

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