|Central coordinates||102o 30.00' East 4o 33.00' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A2, A3|
|Altitude||120 - 2,187m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Summary This vast area is stretched between 4 districts located in three different states in the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. It is the single largest protected area in the central of the peninsular.
Site description (I) Physical CharacteristicsTaman Negara National Park is Peninsular Malaysia's single largest protected area located in the central regions of the peninsula. It is also the only inter-State protected area involving the Pahang, Terengganu and Kelantan State. About 57% of Taman Negara lies in Pahang, 24% in Kelantan and 19% in Terengganu. The national park is located in the headwaters of the Tembeling, Relai-Aring-Lebir and Trenggan river system. Most of the area within the national park lies below 305 m asl (57.6%). Several mountains are located within the national park namely Gunung Tahan (2,187 m asl), peninsula's highest, Gunung Perlis (1,284 m asl), Gunung Gagau (1,377 m asl), Gunung Rabong (1,538 m asl) and Gunung Mandi Angin (1,460 m asl). Most of Taman Negara lies on sedimentary rocks, predominantly sandstones and shale. Limestone outcrops occur at scattered locations, and Gua Peningat (723 m asl) is the highest and one of the largest in the country. However, it lacks high altitude granite (Anon., 1952; Anon., 1971a; Anon., 1971b). The national park has one of the oldest and pristine vegetation in Malaysia and is reputed to be the oldest rainforests in the world. It is also one of the ten most endangered places in Malaysia (MNS, 1974; Kiew et al., 1985; Latiff, 1996; Medway, 1971; MOCAT, 1997; Kawanishi et al., 1999).(II) Climatic ConditionsThe national park experiences both the north-east and south-west monsoon. The highest rainfall occurs in October-November (312 mm) and lowest in March (50 mm). Heavy rainfall dominate the period between December-February, resulting in flooding large tracts of the rainforest. Temperature ranges between 25-37oC and humidity high (>80%). However, on the mountain peaks and ranges, conditions are cool and sunny and cold on peaks at night (Bowden, 2001; DWNP, 1987).
Key Biodiversity Taman Negara is well known for its avifaunal diversity. Over 254 bird species has been recorded. Of these, 24% occur in montane forest or strictly confined to hills in lowland forest whilst the rest are in the lowland forests. Taman Negara, inarguably, is the best IBA site for the Biome-restricted Assemblages species (1 Endangered, 7 Vulnerable, 61 Near Threatened) and is crucial for the remaining population of the globally threatened Storm's Stork, endemic Mountain Peacock-pheasant and Malaysian Peacock-pheasant (Davison, 1982; Wells, 1971, 1990d). Other Near Threatened species that occurs in the national park include the Lesser Fish-Eagle Ichthyophaga hunilis, Grey-headed Fish-Eagle I. ichthyaetus, Great Hornbill Buceros bicornis and Japanese Paradise-Flycatcher Tersiphone atrocaudata.
Non-bird biodiversity: Plants exhibit tremendous diversity as in Taman Negara (Clarke, 2002; Latiff, 1996; Ng, 1978, 1989; Soepadmo, 1971). It may house more than 30% of 8000 species of flowering plants known in the peninsula. Families such as Dipterocarpaceae, Moraceae, Orchidaceae, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Annonaceae are well represented in the national park. Plant endemism is also high. Some 14 endemic tree species has been documented in the park such as Diospyros adenophora (Ebenaceae), Elaeocarpus floribundus (Elaeocarpaceae), Ficus oreophila (Moraceae), Horsfieldia tomentosa (Myristiceae), Podocarpus montana (Podocarpaceae) and Grewia laurifolia (Tiliaceae) (Ng, 1990). Other non-tree endemics include Sarcochilus minutiflorus (Orhidaceae), Didymocarpus flavobrunnea, D. pyrolifolia (Gesneriaceae) and Begonia herveyana var. robusta. Among the rare plants that can be found include Brugmansia lowii (Rafflesiaceae), Sarcochilus biserratus, S. tjiladapensis and Trichopus malayanus (Dioscoreaceae) (Kiew and Chin, 1982). The national park is an important gene pool of major cultivated plants (Ho, 1971).The national park has more than 120 species of mammals, 67 snakes, 55 frogs and 109 freshwater fishes (Jasmi bin Abdul, 1996; Mohd. Zakaria-Ismail, 1984; Sabrina M. Shariff, 1984; Kawanishi et al., 1999; Stòwe et al., 1998). It offers one of the best protection for large mammals in the peninsula due to the presence of various saltlicks in the area (Mohd. Khan bin Momin Khan, 1971; WWF, 2002a, 2002b). Cave systems within Taman Negara such as Gua Daun Menari and Gua Telinga are known to house large populations of bats (Davison, 1995; Yeap, 2000).(I) Globally threatened mammals (IUCN, 2002): CRITICAL: Sumatran Rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis; ENDANGERED: South-east Asian White-toothed Shrew Crocidura fuliginosa, Asian Elephant Elephas maximus, Tiger Panthera tigris, Malayan Tapir Tapirus indicus; VULNERABLE: Common Porcupine Hystrix brachyura, Pig-tailed Macaque Macaca nemestrina, Gaur Bos gaurus, Dhole Cuon alpinus, Serow Capricornis sumatraensis; NEAR THREATENED: Smoky Flying Squirrel Pteromyscus pulverulentus, Oriental Small-clawed Otter Amblonyx cinereus, Long-tailed Macaque M. fascicularis, Banded Leaf-Monkey Presbytis melalophos, White-handed Gibbon Hylobates lar; DATA DEFICIENT: Malayan Sun Bear Helarctos malayanus(II) Globally threatened reptiles (IUCN, 2002): CRITICAL: Striped Narrow-headed Softshell Turtle Chitra chitra; ENDANGERED: Spiny Turtle Heosemys spinosa, Asian Brown Tortoise Manouria emys; VULNERABLE: Asiatic Softshell Turtle Amyda cartilaginea, Malayan Flat-shelled Turtle Notochelys platynota; NEAR THREATENED: Asian Leaf Turtle Cyclemys dentata(III) Globally threatened plants (IUCN, 2002): CRITICAL: Dipterocarpus grandiflorus, D. baudii; ENDANGERED: Dacrydium comosum, Nepenthes gracillima, Mangifera superba, Anisoptera laevis, Shorea leprosula, S. ovata; VULNERABLE: Adinandra corneriana, Beilschmiedia membranacea, Brassaiopsis minor, Bridelia whitmorei, Eugenia cyrtophylloides, Garcinia clusiaefolia, Kokoona sessilis, Lithocarpus curtisii, Agathis flavescens, A. dammara, Lithocarpus erythrocarpus, L. kunstleri, Mangifera macrocarpa, M. pentandra, Nepenthes macfarlanei; LOWER RISK/conservation dependent: Acronychia porteri, Adinandra angulata, Cyathocalyx scortechinii, Dacryodes kingii, Elaeocarpus cruciatus, Elaeocarpus pseudopaniculatus, E. reticosus, E. symingtonii, Eugenia pahangensis, Eugenia pseudoclaviflora, E. tahanensis, E. tekuensis, Glycosmic decipiens, Heliciopsis whitmorei, Koompassi excelsa, Macaranga quadricornis, Symplocos pyriflora, Tabernaemontana polyneura, Terminthodia viridiflora, Tetractomia majus, Pentace excelsa, P. grandiflora, Pyrenaria pahangensis, Ryparosa scortechinii, Palaquium regina-montium, Lithocarpus kingianus, L. kunstleri, Livistona tahanensis, Hydnocarpus cucurbitina, Ilex illustris, I. patens, I. tahanensis, Knema oblongifolia, Nepenthes sanguinea; NEAR THREATENED: Carallia euryoides, Castanopsis curtisii, Saurauia rubens, Rapanea perakensis, Madhuca tomentosa, Hydnocarpus nana, Dialum cochinchinense; DATA DEFICIENT: Aquilaria rostrata, Podocarpus deflexus, Oshanostachys amentacea
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Lophura erythrophthalma||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Not Recognised|
|Mountain Peacock-pheasant Polyplectron inopinatum||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Malay Peacock-pheasant Polyplectron malacense||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Black Partridge Melanoperdix niger||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Crested Argus Rheinardia ocellata||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Near Threatened|
|Storm's Stork Ciconia stormi||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Endangered|
|Wallace's Hawk-eagle Nisaetus nanus||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Masked Finfoot Heliopais personatus||non-breeding||2004||present||-||A1||Endangered|
|Large Green-pigeon Treron capellei||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Short-toed Coucal Centropus rectunguis||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Alcedo euryzona||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Not Recognised|
|Straw-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus zeylanicus||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Taman Negara||National Park||452,454||protected area contains site||431,453|
|Taman Negara National Park||ASEAN Heritage||434,300||protected area contains site||431,453|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
Protection status Historically, parts of the area were designated as 'The Gunung Tahan Game Reserve' in 1925 by the Pahang State. Cooperation with neighbouring States of Terengganu and Kelantan in 1939 resulted in an interstate park called the King George V National Park then which was later became Taman Negara after Malaysia's Independence (Burkill, 1971). The purpose of the park remains to utilize the land within the park 'in perpetuity, for the propagation, protection, and preservation of the indiginous flora and fauna......'.Taman Negara is gazetted as a national park under the National Parks Act 1980. However, each of the three States have its own legislation in the gazettement as well such as the Enactment of Taman Negara Terengganu No. 6 (1938) and Taman Negara Kelantan State Enactment No.14 (1938). The Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP), Peninsular Malaysia administers Taman Negara National Park in accordance to the Taman Negara Master Plan 1987 (Ahmad Samsuddin Haji Shaari, 2000). The national park is fully protected and no commercial exploitation is permitted. However, exceptions are given to the local aborigines to hunt and gather for personal usage. A Board of Trustees is made up of the Federal King and three State rulers. Taman Negara Council is made up of representatives from the Forestry Department (Peninsular Malaysia), WWFM, MNS and the local universities, which takes responsibility in advising the DWNP in the management of the park (Anon., 1996).Despite its importance nationally, Taman Negara National Park does not have a buffer zone. An attempt to lobby the establishment of a buffer zone in 1990 was unsuccessful due to the lack of support from stakeholder states (Ahmad Samsuddin Haji Shaari, 2000). Internationally, Taman Negara National Park is recognised as an IUCN Category II protected area.
References Ahmad Samsuddin Haji Shaari. 2000. The Taman Negara Experience. Workshop on Zoning Systems for Protected Areas in Peninsular Malaysia: Towards Sustainable Management of Biological Resources. Department of Wildlife and National Parks, 21-23 April 1999.Anon. (compiler). 1996a. Bird List at Kuala Kenyiam and Kuala Tahan, Taman Negara, 27-31 July 1996. Enggang 4 (4): 9-14.Anon. (compiler). 1996b. Birds at Kuala Koh, Taman Negara Kelantan, 30th May to 2nd June 1996. Enggang 4 (2&3): 26-34.Anon. 1952. Nature Notes from King George V National Park, 1950. Malayan Nature Journal 7: 15-18. Anon. 1971a. Taman Negara: Introduction. Malayan Nature Journal 24: 113-114.Anon. 1971b. The Need for the Conservation of Taman Negara. Malayan Nature Journal 24: 196-205.Anon. 1996. Capacity building and strengthening of the protected areas system in Peninsular Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Department of Wildlife and National Parks.Anon. (compiler). 1996/97. Recent Sightings of Interest. Enggang 4 (December 1996-January 1997): 16-25.Bowden, D. 2001. Taman Negara, Malaysia's Premier National Park. London: New Holland Publishers (UK) Ltd.Burkill, H.M. 1971. A Plea for the Inviolacy of Taman Negara. Malayan Nature Journal 24: 206-209.Chong, M. 1994. Masked Finfoot Heliopais personata in Peninsular Malaysia. OCB Bulletin 20: 29-32.Clarke, C. 2002. A Guide to the Pitcher Plants of Peninsular Malaysia. Kota Kinabalu: Natural History Publications (Borneo).Davison, G.W.H. 1982. Birds in Taman Negara. Malayan Naturalist 35(4): 18-23.Davison, G.W.H. 1985. Gua Kepayang '84, Taman Negara Cave Expedition: Bat Populations in the Caves. Malayan Naturalist 38(2): 22-24, 29.Davison, G.W.H. 2000. Checklist of Birds in Taman Negara. (Unpublished).Davison, G.W.H. and Scriven, K.W. Undated. Recent pheasant surveys in Peninsular Malaysia. In Savage, C.D.W. and Ridley, M.W. (eds). Pheasants in Asia 1992, pp. 90-101. Reading: World Pheasant Association.DWNP. 1986. Development Plan for Kuala Tahan and Adjacent Areas. Kuala Lumpur: Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment.DWNP. 1987. Taman Negara Masterplan. Peninsular Malaysia: Department of Wildlife and National Parks.DWNP. 1988. Taman Negara Terengganu: A Development and Management Plan. Kuala Lumpur: Department of Wildlife and National Parks.DWNP. 1992. Taman Negara Kelantan: A Development and Management Plan. Kuala Lumpur: Department of Wildlife and National Parks.Fisher, K. and Fisher, L. 1996. Birding in the Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore: Trip Report. (Unpublished).Gurmit Singh, K.S. 1983. The Saving of Taman Negara. In Wan Sabri Wan Mansor, Rusli Mohd., Kamis Awang, Mohd. Basri Hamzah and Mohd. Zin Jusoh (eds.). Rekreasi Luar di Malaysia. Seminar Kebangsaan Hutan, Taman Negara dan Taman Bandaran Untuk Rekreasi, 26-28 September 1983, Serdang, Selangor, pp. 331-341.Harrap, S. 1986. Birding in Peninsular Malaysia. (Unpublished).Ho, C-C. 1971. The importance of Taman Negara as a gene pool of major cultivated plants. Malayan Nature Journal 24: 215-221.IUCN. 2002. 2002 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.redlist.org (23 June 2003).Jasmi Abdul. 1997. Isu-isu Berkaitan Pemuliharaan dan Pengurusan Lestari Taman Negara Semenanjung Malaysia. In Mohd Nordin Hasan. (ed.). Sabah Parks: Conserving Our Natural Heritage, pp. 49-62. Bangi: Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI).Jasmi bin Abdul. 1996. Kepelbagaian Hidupan Liar di Taman Negara. In Ibrahim Komoo. (ed.). Taman Negara: Conserving Our Natural Heritage. Proceedings of the Seminar on Taman Negara, Taman Negara, 16-18 November 1995, pp. 17-31. Bangi: Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI).Jeyarajasingam, A., Noramly, G. and Ooi, C.H. (eds.). 1997. Recent Sightings. Suara Enggang 3: 17-25.Jeyarajasingam, A., Noramly, G. and Ooi, C.H. (eds.). 1998. Recent Sightings. Suara Enggang 3: 27-35.Kawanishi, K., Abdul Malek Sahak and Sunquist, M. 1999. Preliminary Analysis on Abundance of Large Mammals at Sungai Relau, Taman Negara. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 17: 62-82.Kiew, R. and Chin, S.C. 1982. The effect of dam building on plant life in Taman Negara. Malayan Naturalist 35(4): 23-25.Kiew, R. and Yong, G.C. 1989. Flowerpeckers and Eugenia dyeriana. Malayan Naturalist 42 (2&3): 5.Kiew, B.H., Kiew, R., Chin, S.C., Davison, G. and Ng, F.S.P. 1985. Malaysia's 10 Most Endangered Animals, Plants and Areas. Malayan Naturalist 38(4): 2-6.Latiff, A. 1996. Plant Diversity and Vegetation of Taman Negara. In Ibrahim Komoo. (ed.). Taman Negara: Conserving Our Natural Heritage. Proceedings of the Seminar on Taman Negara, Taman Negara, 16-18 November 1995, pp. 83-101. Bangi: Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI).Lim, K.C. (compiler). 2003d. Recent Sightings. Suara Enggang 4 (July-August): 21-38.Lim, K.C. (compiler). 2003a. Recent Sightings. Suara Enggang 1 (January-February): 22-43.Lim, K.C. (compiler). 2000. Bird Report (Jan-Mar 2000). Singapore Avifauna 14(1): 2-22.Madoc, G.C. 1960. A Visit to Gunong Tahan. Malayan Nature Journal 14: 95-107.Malaysian Nature Society. 1974. A Blueprint for Conservation in Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 27: 1-16.Medway, Lord. 1971. Importance of Taman Negara in the conservation of mammals. Malayan Nature Journal 24: 212-214. Medway, Lord and Wells, D.R. 1976. The birds of the Malay Peninsula, Vol. 5. H.F. and G. Witherby, London in association with Penerbit Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.MOCAT. 1997. National Ecotourism Plan Malaysia. Prepared for the Ministry of Culture, Arts and Tourism, Federal Government of Malaysia. Mohd Zakaria Ismail. 1984. Checklist of Fishes of Taman Negara. Malayan Naturalist 37(3): 21-26.Mohd. Khan Bin Momin Khan. 1971. The Distribution of Large Animals in Taman Negara. Malayan Nature Journal 24: 125-131.Mushrifah, I, Ismail, A., Ahmad, A., Ismail, A. and Badri, M.A. 1994. Water Quality of Some Rivers and Levels of Selected Heavy Metals in Freshwater Fishes of Taman Negara, Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 47: 397-408.Mustafa Abdul Rahman. 2002. Using Mist-Nets on Canopy Walkways in Malaysia to Study Canopy Avifauna. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 50(2): 499-506.Ng, F.S.P. (ed.). (1978, 1989). Tree Flora of Malaya. Vol. 3 & 4. Longman, Malaysia. Noramly, G. 1997. Birds of Sg Relau/Kuala Jeram, Taman Negara, Merapoh district, Pahang. Suara Enggang 1 (February-March): 20-24.Robson, C. (compiler). 1985b. From the field. OBC Bulletin 1: 24-28.Robson, C. (compiler). 1988. From the Field. OBC Bulletin 7: 34-40.Robinson, H.C. and Chasen, F.N. 1936. The birds of the Malay Peninsula, Vol. 3. London: H.F. and G. Witherby Ltd.Sabrina M. Shariff. (1984). Some Observations on Otters at Kuala Gula, Perak and National Park, Pahang. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 3: 75-88.Siti Hawa Yatim. 1993. The status and distribution of pheasants in Peninsular Malaysia. In Jenkins, D. (ed.). Pheasants in Asia 1992, pp. 29-39. Reading: World Pheasant Association.Soepadmo, E. 1971. Plants and vegetation along the paths from Kuala Tahan to Gunong Tahan. Malayan Nature Journal 24: 118-124.Stòwe, M., Jasmi B. Abdul, Burhanuddin Mohd. Nor and Wemmer, C.M. (1998). Tracking the movements of translocated elephants in Malaysia using satellite telemetry. Oryx 32(1): 68-74. Sunday Star. 1983. Taman Negara Update. Malayan Naturalist 36(4): 9.Wartmann, B.A. 1993. List of birds observed in Malaysia. (Unpublished).Wells, D.R. 1971. Survival of the Malaysian Bird Fauna. Malayan Nature Fauna. Malayan Nature Journal 24: 248-256.Wells, D.R. (compiler). 1972. Bird Report: 1969. Malayan Nature Journal 25: 43-61.Wells, D.R. (compiler). 1974. Bird Report: 1970 and 1971. Malayan Nature Journal 27: 30-49.Wells, D.R. (compiler). 1975. Bird Report: 1972 and 1973. Malayan Nature Journal 28: 186-213Wells, D.R. (compiler). 1982. Bird Report: 1974 and 1975. Malayan Nature Journal 36: 61-85.Wells, D.R. (compiler). 1983. Bird Report: 1976 and 1977. Malayan Nature Journal 36: 197-218.Wells, D.R. (compiler). 1984. Bird Report: 1978 and 1979. Malayan Nature Journal 38: 113-150.Wells, D.R. (compiler). 1986. Bird Report: 1980 and 1981. Malayan Nature Journal 39: 279-298.Wells, D.R. (compiler). 1990a. Malayan Bird Report: 1984 and 1985. Malayan Nature Journal 43: 148-171.Wells, D.R. (compiler). 1990b. Malayan Bird Report: 1986 and 1987. Malayan Nature Journal 43: 172-210.Wells, D.R. (compiler). 1990c. Malayan Bird Report: 1982 and 1983. Malayan Nature Journal 43: 116-147Wells, D.R. 1990d. Taman Negara and Ornithology. Journal of Wildlife and National Parks 10: 139-147.WWF. 2002b. Conserving Tigers in the Wild. A WWF Framework and Strategy for Action 2002-2010. Switzerland: WWF International, Species Programme.WWF. 2002a. Securing a Future for Asia's Wild Rhinos & Elephants. WWF's Asian Rhino and Elephant Action Strategy. Switzerland: World Wildlife Fund, Inc.Yeap, C.A. 2000. A Bat Survey in Taman Negara, Peninsular Malaysia. MSc. Dissertation. Bangi: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.Yong, D. and Chong, M. (compilers). 1989a. Recent Records. Enggang 2(2): 2-5. Yong, D. and Chong, M. (compilers). 1989b. Recent Records. Enggang 2(4): 2-8. Yong, D. and Chong, M. (compilers). 1990. Recent Records. Enggang 3(1): 2-8.
Contribute Please click here to help BirdLife conserve the world's birds - your data for this IBA and others are vital for helping protect the environment.
Recommended citation BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Taman Negara National Park. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/07/2016
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife