|Central coordinates||103o 10.00' East 1o 39.00' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A4i|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Summary Stretched between two districts in the state of Johor, this area mostly consist of mangroves and mudflats. Certain parts of this coastline had been declared as Ramsar sites.
Site description (I) Physical CharacteristicsPulau Kukup is located off the south-west tip of Johor State. The island is covered by mature mangrove forest, accreting towards the west and north-west, eroding in the south-east, and is a particularly good example of unexploited mangrove forest. Large mudflats are located to the north-west whereas severely degraded coastal mangroves (less than 500 m wide) are bunded on the landward side (DWNP, 1987; Junkov, 1999; Hawkins and Howes, 1986). (II) Climatic ConditionsPulau Kukup experiences a humid tropical climate with annual showers from both the NE and SW monsoons. The annual rainfall average ranges from 2,000 - 2,500 mm with an even distribution throughout the year (WIMP, 1999). Temperature ranges from 24.5oC to 26.5oC annually (IKAS, n.d.). The island experiences semi-diurnal tidal exposure of two high tides and low tides in a day (WIMP, 1999).
Key Biodiversity Pulau Kukup is an important feeding ground for the Lesser Adjutants and migratory shorebirds (5 species) (Noramly, 1998). The mangroves around the Kukup area are refuges for several globally Near Threatened species such as the Long-tailed Parakeet Psittacula longicauda, Chestnut-bellied Malkoha Phaenicophaeus sumatranus, White-chested Babbler Trichastoma rostratum and Mangrove Pitta Pitta megarhyncha (Anon., 1992).
Non-bird biodiversity: Unidentified dolphins have been seen using the channel between island and mainland. (I) Globally threatened mammals (IUCN, 2002): VULNERABLE: Smooth Otter Lutrogale perspicillata, NEAR THREATENED: Long-tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis(II) Globally threatened reptiles (IUCN, 2002): None.(III) Globally threatened plants (IUCN, 2002): None.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus||resident||2004||present||-||A1, A4i||Vulnerable|
|Milky Stork Mycteria cinerea||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Endangered|
|Chinese Egret Egretta eulophotes||non-breeding||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Common Redshank Tringa totanus||winter||2004||present||-||A4i||Least Concern|
|White-winged Tern Chlidonias leucopterus||winter||2004||present||-||A4i||Least Concern|
|Straw-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus zeylanicus||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|2007||high||not assessed||not assessed|
|Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||annual & perennial non-timber crops - agro-industry farming||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Biological resource use||hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target)||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Biological resource use||logging & wood harvesting - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Pollution||agricultural & forestry effluents - nutrient loads||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Pollution||industrial & military effluents - oil spills||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Residential and commercial development||housing and urban areas||happening now||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||high|
|Transportation and service corridors||shipping lanes||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Pulau Kukup||Forest Reserve||0||unknown||0|
|Pulau Kukup||Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar)||647||unknown||0|
|Sungai Pulai||Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar)||9,126||unknown||0|
|Tanjung Piai||Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar)||526||unknown||0|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
Protection status Pulau Kukup State Park has been nominated as a Ramsar Site together with Tanjung Piai State Park and Sungai Pulai Mangrove Forest Reserve (WIMP, 1999, 2001). The area has also been recognized as having ecotourism potential (MOCAT, 1997).
References DWNP. 1987. Malaysian Wetland Directory. Peninsular Malaysia: Department of Wildlife and National Parks.IUCN. 2002. 2002 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.redlist.org (23 June 2003).Junkov, M. (ed.). 1999. Biodiversity Audit and Conservation Plan for the Mangroves of Johor. Project Document No 6. Forestry Department, Peninsular Malaysia/Johor State/DANCED.Hawkins, A.F.A. and Howes, J.R. 1986. Preliminary Assessment of Coastal Wetlands and Shorebirds in South-West Peninsular Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: INTERWADER Publication No.13. Lamont, A. (ed.). 1997. Johor Bird Report 1998. (Unpublished).Lamont, A. (ed.). 1998. Johor Bird Report 1998. (Unpublished).Lamont, A. (ed.). 1999. Johor Bird Report 1998. (Unpublished).Lamont, A. (ed.). 1999. Johor Bird Report 1998. (Unpublished).Lamont, A. (ed.). 2000. The Johor Bird Report 1999. (Unpublished).Lim, K.C. 1998. Birding Johor - Kukup. Singapore Avifauna 11(4): 23-25.Lim, K.S. (compiler). 1992. Jan-Mar 1992 Bird Report. Singapore Avifauna 6(1): 1-23.Mah, T.O. 2000. An Update of Kukup's shorebirds. Suara Enggang,6: 10-11.MCRST 1992. The Coastal Resources Management Plan for South Johor, Malaysia. Malaysian Coastal Resources Study Team. Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment. ASEAN/US Coastal Resources Management Project. Technical Publications Series 11. Manila: ICLARM.Noramly, G. 1998. Bird Survey of the Johor Mangroves, Technical Report for the Project Preparation of an Integrated Management Palm for Sustainable Use of the Johor Mangrove Forests. Johor State For.Dept/DARUDEC/DANCED.Noramly, G. 1999. Birding Around Kukup, Johor. Suara Enggang 1: 8-10.MOCAT. 1997. National Ecotourism Plan Malaysia. Prepared for the Ministry of Culture, Arts and Tourism, Federal Government of Malaysia. IKAS. No date. Kajian Pelan Pengurusan Pelancongan dan Rekreasi Rezab Taman Negara Pulau Kukup, Pontian, Johor Darul Takzim. Prepared by Institut Kajian Alam Sekitar, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia for Perbadanan Taman Negara (Johor).WIMP. 1999. Ecological Assessment of Pulau Kukup, Johor: To determine its status as a wetland of international importance. A report submitted to Perbadanan Taman Negara (Johor), Johor Darul Takzim. Petaling Jaya: Wetlands International-Malaysia Programme.WIMP. 2001. Ecological Assessment of Sungai Pulai Mangrove Forest Reserve and Proposed Tanjung Piai State Park: To determine their status as wetlands of international importance (Ramsar Sites). A report submitted to Perbadanan Taman Negara (Johor), Johor Darul Takzim. Petaling Jaya: Wetlands International-Malaysia Programme.
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