|Central coordinates||102o 2.00' East 3o 35.00' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A2, A3|
|Altitude||45 - 2,108m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Summary Located in the district of Temerloh, in the east of the Titiwangsa Range, in the state of Pahang. 4 major rivers are found within or bordering the area. It is said to be one of the oldest protected areas in Malaysia.
Site description (I) Physical Characteristics Krau Wildlife Reserve is located east of the Banjaran Titiwangsa (or Main Range) in Pahang State. It is one of the oldest protected areas in Malaysia and biologically diverse. The area is amongst the driest in the peninsula due to its location where the north-east monsoon is shielded by the mountains in the east while the south-west monsoon is shielded by the range. The terrain is described as mostly hilly with flat lowlands, some of which is quite hilly. The low-lying areas are mainly found in the south and central part while the mountain range is located in the north-east. Four major rivers are found within or bordering the area, namely Sungai Krau (east), Sungai Lompat (central), Sungai Teris (south-west) and Sungai Tekal (south-east). Gunung Benom (2,107 m asl), the fourth highest mountain in Peninsular Malaysia, is situated within the reserve. Other prominent peaks within are Bukit Rengit (671 m asl) and Bukit Tapah (778 m asl). The mountain is granitic in nature but the soils of the lowlands are sandy (DWNP, 2000; Lim, 1999; Payne, 1978). The soil of the lowlands consists of a mixture of hornblend-granite, syenite, pyroxene-granite prophyry and dioxite, covered by sedimentary and organic top (DWNP, 1995). (II) Climatic ConditionsThe wildlife reserve is within parts of Pahang, which is among the driest areas in the peninsula due to its location where the north-east monsoon is shielded by the mountains in the east while the south-west monsoon is shielded by the Banjaran Titiwangsa. Annual rainfall is about 2,000 mm, with the highest in April and November. The daily temperature is about 33oC.At Gunung Benom, however, the mean annual rainfall is in the range of 2,000-2,200 mm, distributed in two maxima (October/November and April) and two minima (July and February) yearly. The daily range of temperature decreases with increasing altitude, with the mean value falling from 12.3oC to 6.3oC between 300 m asl through 1,525 m asl (Lim, 1999).
Key Biodiversity Krau Wildlife Reserve is the second largest protected area in peninsula. The reserve is important for biome-restricted assemblages species and globally threatened species due to its size. More than 330 species of birds have been recorded (Department of Wildlife and National Parks 1995; Ng 1998; Medway and Wells 1971; Siti Hawa Yatim et al 1986). About 70% of the totally protected species under the Protection of Wildlife Act 1972 can be found in the reserve. The protected area also linked by a 'biological corridor', mainly forest reserves, to Taman Negara in the north.
Non-bird biodiversity: The biological diversity of Krau Wildlife Reserve has been intensely researched since the colonial days. Ninety percent of the research activities were concentrated on the lowland forest with only a single expedition at Gunung Benom in 1967. Since then, more discoveries have been made. The biodiversity of Krau is high including several endemics such as Xanthopyllum griffithii on Gunung Benom.115 species of mammals (Chivers, 1971, 1975, 1980; DWNP, 1995; Francis, 1994, 1997; Lopez, 2000; Bennett et al., 1983; Hassan Kassim et al., 1999; Kington et al., 1997; Saharudin Anan et al. 1998). The area has the highest diversity for insectivorous bats in the world with 52 species (Kingston, pers. comm.).150 species of amphibians and reptiles (DWNP, 1995; Lim, 1999; Jasmi Abdul et al., 1999; Norsham et al., 2001).70 species of freshwater fishes including rare species such as Esomus malayensis, Ompok bimaculatus, Homoloptera tweediei, Vaillantella maasi, Channa melasome and Achiroides leucuorhynhos. This constitutes 62% of the known species in the peninsula (DWNP, 1995; Mohd Zakaria-Ismail, 1993).A total of 362 plant species (including lianas, figs, climbers, epiphytes) have been recorded and of these, 337 are tree species.Presence of Rafflesia cantleyi, recently discovered in 2001 (Laidlaw et al., 2001).92 species of butterflies (Zaidi and Abin, 1995).(I) Globally threatened mammals (IUCN, 2002): CRITICAL: Sumatran Rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis; ENDANGERED: South-east Asian White-toothed Shrew Crocidura fuliginosa, Otter-Civet Cynogale bennettii, Tiger Panthera tigris, Asian Elephant Elephas maximus, Malayan Tapir Tapirus indicus; VULNERABLE: Pig-tailed Macaque Macaca nemestrina, Dhole Cuon alpinus, Golden Cat Catopuma temminckii, Clouded Leopard Neofelis nebulosa, Serow Capricornis sumatraensis, Gaur Bos gaurus; NEAR THREATENED: Long-tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis, Banded Leaf-Monkey Presbytis melalophos, White-handed Gibbon Hylobates lar, Siamang Symphalangus syndactylus, Malayan Pangolin Manis javanica, Smoky Flying Squirrel Pteromyscus pulverulentus, Oriental Small-clawed Otter Amblonyx cinereus, Grey Fruit Bat Aethalops alecto, Dato Meldrum's Bat Chaerephon johorensis, Naked Bat Cheiromeles torquatus, Dayak Fruit Bat Dyacopterus spadiceus, Small Woolly Bat Kerivoula intermedia, Least Forest Bat K. minuta, Hutton's Tube-nosed Bat Murina huttoni; DATA DEFICIENT: Malayan Sun Bear Helarctos malayanus, Benom Pipistrelle Pipistrellus societatis(II) Globally threatened reptiles (IUCN, 2002): ENDANGERED: Spiny Turtle Heosemys spinosa, Asian Brown Tortoise Manouria emys; VULNERABLE: Asiatic Softshell Turtle Amyda cartilaginea, Malayan Flat-shelled Turtle Notochelys platynota; NEAR THREATENED: Asian Leaf Turtle Cyclemys dentata(III) Globally threatened plants (IUCN, 2002): CRITICAL: Dipterocarpus baudii, D. cornutus, Hopea sangal, Shorea acuminata, S. hopeifolia, S. lepidota, S. ochrophloia, S. sumatrana, Vatica bella; ENDANGERED: Anisoptera laevis, Shorea bracteolata, S. leprosula, S. maxwelliana, S. pauciflora, Schoutenia cornerii; VULNERABLE: Castanopsis nephelioides, Knema hookerana, Nephelium costatum, Aquilaria malaccensis; LOWER RISK/conservation dependent: Koompassia excelsa, K. malaccensis; NEAR THREATENED: Castanopsis curtisii, Horsfieldia superba; DATA DEFICIENT: Ochanostachys amentacea
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Lophura erythrophthalma||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Not Recognised|
|Mountain Peacock-pheasant Polyplectron inopinatum||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Malay Peacock-pheasant Polyplectron malacense||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Black Partridge Melanoperdix niger||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Storm's Stork Ciconia stormi||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Endangered|
|Wallace's Hawk-eagle Nisaetus nanus||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Masked Finfoot Heliopais personatus||non-breeding||2004||present||-||A1||Endangered|
|Large Green-pigeon Treron capellei||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Short-toed Coucal Centropus rectunguis||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Straw-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus zeylanicus||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Krau||Wildlife Reserve||62,396||protected area contained by site||53,095|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
Protection status First proposed for conservation by Stevens (1968), Krau Wildlife Reserve was gazetted on 9th June 1923 (55,182 ha). The established was primarily to preserve the Seladang Bos gaurus, an important game, which was once numerous along the Krau valley. After the formal establishment of the DWNP in 1937, the wildlife reserve was enlarged to 65,268 ha in 1939, utilising natural features such as rivers and mountain peaks as boundaries. In 1965 and 1968, two portions of the northeastern part of the area with 1,984 ha and 891 ha respectively were degazetted to accommodate the local aborigines' (Jahut tribe) villages) (Sivanathan, 2000).Mohd. Taufik Abd. Rahman and Mohd. Salleh Daim (2002)The Bukit Rengit Wildlife Training Centre, Kuala Gandah Elephant Management Centre, Jendrak South Seladang and Deer Breeding Centre, a Research Centre at Kuala Lompat and Wildlife Ranger Posts at Perlok and Bukit Patong/Klau are located within the Wildlife Reserve which are maintained by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks (Peninsular Malaysia) (Elagupillay, 2000). Krau Wildlife Reserve is classified as an IUCN Category IV protected area.
References Bennett, E.L., Davison, G.W.H. and Kavanagh, M. 1983. Social Change in a Family of Siamang (Hylobates syndactylus). Malayan Nature Journal 36: 187-196.Chivers, D.J. 1971. The Malayan Siamang. Malayan Nature Journal 24: 78-86.Chivers, D.J. 1975. The Behaviour of Siamang in the Krau Game Reserve. Malayan Nature Journal 29: 7-22.Chivers, D.J. 1980. Malayan Forest Primates. New York: Plenum Press.Choo, J.H. and Teresa, O. (2001). Bird checklist of Bukit Rengit, Lanchang, Pahang. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 19: 109-122.Davison, G.W.H. and Scriven, K.W. Undated. Recent pheasant surveys in Peninsular Malaysia. In Savage, C.D.W. and Ridley, M.W. (eds.). Pheasants in Asia 1982, pp. 90-101. Reading: World Pheasant Association.DWNP. 1995. Inventori Kepelbagaian Biologi Rezab Hidupan Liar Krau, Pahang Darul Makmur. Kuala Lumpur: Department of Wildlife and National Parks. (Unpublished).DWNP. 2000. Krau Wildlife Reserve: A Biological Laboratory in Pahang. Kuala Lumpur: DWNP-DANCED Krau Wildlife Reserve Project, Department of Wildlife and National Parks.DWNP-DANCED. 1996. A Master Plan on Capacity Building & Strengthening of The Protected Areas System in Peninsular Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia: Department of Wildlife and National Parks.Elagupillay, S. 2000. Research at Krau Wildlife Reserve. In Galt, A., Sigaty, T. and Vinton, M. (eds.). The World Commission on Protected Areas, 2nd Southeast Asia Regional Forum, Pakse, Lao PDR, 6-11 December 1999. Volume II - Papers Presented. IUCN, Vientiane, Lao PDR, pp. 380-384.Francis, C. 1994. Vertical stratification of fruit bats (Pteropodidae) in lowland rainforest in Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Ecology 10: 523-530.Francis, C. 1997. First record for Peninsular Malaysia of the Gilded Tube-nosed Bat Murina rozendaali. Malayan Nature Journal 50: 359-362.Hassan Kassim, Aziz Che Man, Rahmat Topani, Mokhtar Muhammad, Saidu Wahid and Ebil Yusof. 1999. Large Mammal Survey at Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 17: 89-95.IUCN. 2002. 2002 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.redlist.org (23 June 2003).Jasmi Abdul, Shaari Mat Amin, Norsham, Y. and Lim, B.L. 1999. Herpetofauna Survey at Sungai Chenderoh, Perlok, Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 17: 83-88.Kington, T, Kunz, T.H., Hodgkison, R. and Zubaid, A. 1997. Phoniscus jagorii, a Verpertilionid bat newly recorded from Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 50: 363.Laidlaw, R.K., Fakrul Hatta Musa and Zamiza Zainal. (2001). Rafflesia in Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 19: 133-134.Lambert, F. 1989a. Daily ranging behaviour of three tropical forest frugivores. Forktail 4: 107-116.Lambert, F. 1989b. Fig-eating by birds in a Malaysian lowland rain forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology 5: 401-412.Lambert, F. 1989c. Pigeons as seed predators and dispersers of the figs in a Malaysian lowland forest. Ibis 131: 521-527.Lambert, F.R. and Marshall, A.G. 1991. Keystone characteristics of bird-dispersed Ficus in a Malaysian lowland rain forest. Journal of Ecology 79: 793-809.Lim, B.L. 1999. Research Activities of the Flora and Fauna at Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia: A Review. DANCED/DWNP Krau Game Reserve Project. Peninsular Malaysia: Department of Wildlife and National Parks.Lopez, A. 2000. A survey of mammals at Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang, with recommendations for conservation and management of a potential biological corridor. MSc. Disertation. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.Martins, R. (compiler) 1986. From the Field. OBC Bulletin 3: 33-36.McGowan, P. 1998. Weights of some birds from the Malaysian forest floor. Forktail 14: 78.McGowan, P.J.K. 1994. Display dispersion and microhabitat use by the Malaysian peacock-pheasant (Polyplectron malacense) in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Ecology 10: 229-244.Medway, Lord and Wells, D.R. 1976. The birds of the Malay Peninsula, Vol. 5. London: H.F. and G. Witherby, in association with Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit Universiti Malaya.Medway, Lord and Wells, D.R. 1971. Diversity and density of birds and mammals at Kuala Lompat, Pahang. Malayan Nature Journal 24: 338-347.Medway, Lord, Nisbet, I.C.T. and Wells, D.R. (comps.). 1968. Bird Report: 1967. Malayan Nature Journal 21: 185-200.Mohd. Taufik Abd. Rahman and Mohd. Salleh Daim. 2002. Krau Wildlife Reserve Management Plan : Experiences, Issues and Challenges. National Workshop on Protected Areas Management: Direction for the Future. National Institute of Public Administration (INTAN), Bukit Kiara, Kuala Lumpur, 14-16 January.Mohd. Taufik b. Abdul Rahman, Mohd. Soffian b. Abu Bakar and Taha b. Hj. Wahab. 1999. Inventory of Birds along the Road of Bukit Rengit Wildlife Training Centre in Lanchang, Pahang. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 17: 124-125.Mohd Zakaria Ismail. 1993. The fish fauna of the Sungai Teris and Sungai Rengit, Krau Game Reserve, Pahang, Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 46: 221-228.Ng, G.S.L. 1998. Understorey avian community structure between undisturbed and disturbed forest. BSc. Disertation. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.Norsham, Y., Leong, T.M. and Gary, L. (2001). Amphibians Checklist of Bukit Rengit, Lanchang, Pahang. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 19: 123-124.Payne, J. 1978. Krau Game Reserve. Malayan Naturalist 32(2): 4-5.Payne, J. 1978. The Krau Game Reserve. Tigerpaper 5(2): 25-27.Robinson , H.C. and Kloss, C.B. 1915. List of a small collection of mammals and birds from the Krau river, western Pahang. Journal of the Federation of Malay States Museum 5: 169-175. Robson, C. (compiler). 1985a. From the Field. OBC Bulletin 2: 36-40.Robson, C. (compiler). 1985b. From the Field. OBC Bulletin 1: 24-28.Robson, C. (compiler). 1986. From the Field. OBC Bulletin 4: 29-31.Robson, C. (compiler). 1987. From the Field. OBC Bulletin 5: 33-36.Robson, C. (compiler). 1989. From the Field. OBC Bulletin 10: 41-44.Saharudin Anan, Azmin Mohd. Rashdi, Jasmi Abdul and Lim, B.L. 1998. A Survey of Small Mammals at Sungai Chenderoh, Perlok, Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 14: 104-109.Siti Hawa Yatim, Zainuddin Baatu and Mat Isa Marzuki. 1986. Survey of mammal and bird species at eight game forest reserve. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 5: 24-52.Sivanathan Elagupillay. 2000. The Need for Buffer Zones and Corridors for Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang. Workshop on Zoning Systems for Protected Areas in Peninsular Malaysia: Towards Sustainable Management of Biological Resources. Department of Wildlife and National Parks, 21-23 April 1999.Stevens, W.E. 1968. The Conservation of Wild Life in West Malaysia. Seremban: Office of the Chief Game Warden, Federal Game Department and Ministry of Lands and Mines.Wells, D.R. (compiler). 1974. Bird Report: 1970 and 1971. Malayan Nature Journal 27: 30-49.Wells, D.R. (compiler). 1982. Bird Report: 1974 and 1975. Malayan Nature Journal 36: 61-85.Wells, D.R. (compiler). 1983. Bird Report: 1976 and 1977. Malayan Nature Journal 36: 197-218.Wells, D.R. (compiler). 1984. Bird Report: 1978 and 1979. Malayan Nature Journal 38: 113-150.Wells, D.R. (compiler). 1986. Bird Report: 1980 and 1981. Malayan Nature Journal 39: 279-298Wells, D.R. (compiler). 1990a. Malayan Bird Report: 1984 and 1985. Malayan Nature Journal 43: 148-171.Wells, D.R. (compiler). 1990b. Malayan Bird Report: 1986 and 1987. Malayan Nature Journal 43: 172-210.WWFM. 1996. National Ecotourism Plan Part 4: Current Status of Ecotourism in Malaysia. Prepared for the Ministry of Culture, Arts and Tourism, Federal Government of Malaysia.Zaidi, M.L. and Abin, S. 1995. Butterfly Fauna of Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang: A Preliminary Survey and Assessment. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 14: 71-82.
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