|Central coordinates||115o 9.00' East 4o 54.00' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A4i|
|Altitude||0 - 50m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Site description Administratively, Brunei Bay comes under two countries (Malaysia and Brunei). The Malaysian parts of its shoreline are also divided between two States: Sarawak and Sabah. The situation is further complicated by the fact that Brunei constitutes two separate territories (Brunei and Temburong districts) which are separated, along this bay, by Sarawak (Limbang district). The eastern curve of the bay is formed by the estuaries of the Klias, Padas and Menumbok rivers, flowing out of the Klias peninsula in Beaufort district, Sabah (MYSB09).There are three separate areas within this bay which are significance for birds: Limbang estuary, Trusan-Sundar and Menumbok estuary. These are treated separately below.(I) Physical CharacteristicsLimbang Estuary: The Limbang estuary is orientated in a north-south direction, about 20 km in length, bordered to the north and south by the two states of Brunei Darussalam. The area is protected from the north-east monsoon by several Bruneian islands; Pulau Muara Besar (composed of successive sandridges with scrubby vegetation) and Pulau Baru-Baru and Pulau Berbunot (both predominantly rocky with a narrow mangrove strip). The estuary is the emergence point of three main rivers; the Sungai Manunggul, Sungai Limbang and Sungai Pandaruan, each having a high silt load. Intertidal mudflats, consisting of fine-grained pure muds, cover the rivermouth and are replaced by sand-mud ridges to the seaward. The mudflats can extend to over 1 km offshore at low tide in areas like Tanjung Api-Api and Tanjung Tubu-Tubu. The situation is reversed at the rivermouths of smaller rivers such as Sungai Sentabok and Sungai Sapukang (Howes and NPWO, 1986).Trusan-Sundar: The Trusan-Sundar mangroves are orientated in a west-east direction, about 20 km in length, and stretches from Kuala Trusan to Tanjung Perepat. Localised erosion is evident east of the mangrove headland i.e. north-west of Kampung Awat-Awat. Accreting mangrove fringe accompanied by extensive intertidal mudflats occur prominently at the mouth of Sungai Trusan (the area's main river), Kuala Bangau, Kuala Kenaljam and Tanjung Perepat. At Kuala Trusan, the flats extend up to 3 km offshore at low tide and consist of a complicated series of deep water channels with areas of exposed sediment forming 'islands'. The deposits at the rivermouth consist of pure, fine-grained muds and gradually replaced by course sand particles as it extend seaward. Some of the most seaward deposts consist primarily of pure course grained sands. The estuary is sheltered by Pulau Labuan and peninsular to the north-east (Howes and NPWO, 1986).Menumbok Estuary: a wide mangrove estuary with exposed inter-tidal mudflats, formed by the Menumbok and Padas rivers. The part of Brunei bay is sheltered by the exposed, northeast-southwest aligned, Klias ridge. The estuary is continuous with the smaller Sg. Klias estuary further south, also forming a mangrove delta. The Menumbok Forest Reserve is contiguous with the Padas Damit FR.(II) Climatic Conditions Average annual rainfall is 3,500 mm. Small variation in monthly rainfall. Rainfall during monsoon season (September-January) is about 400 mm/month (DWNP, 1987).
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Bornean Peacock-pheasant Polyplectron schleiermacheri||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Endangered|
|Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Storm's Stork Ciconia stormi||resident||2004||present||-||A1||Endangered|
|Chinese Egret Egretta eulophotes||non-breeding||2004||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Greater Sandplover Charadrius leschenaultii||winter||2004||present||-||A4i||Least Concern|
|Spotted Greenshank Tringa guttifer||winter||2004||present||-||A1||Endangered|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
Other biodiversity (I) Globally threatened mammals (IUCN, 2002): ENDANGERED: Proboscis Monkey Nasalis larvatus; VULNERABLE: Dugong Dugong dugon; NEAR THREATENED: Silvered Leaf Monkey Trachypithecus cristatus; Long-tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis; DATA DEFICIENT: Irrawaddy Dolphin Orcaella brevirostris(II) Globally threatened reptiles (IUCN, 2002): CRITICALLY ENDANGERED: Painted Terrapin Callagur borneoensis along Sg. Siang Siang (Sebastian, 1995). A small population of Estuarine Crocodile Crocodylus porosus survives in parts of the bay.(III)Plants: Nepenthes reinwardtiana recorded along Sg. Lawas, a very rare species in Sarawak (Howes and NPWO, 1986).
Protection status Limbang Estuary: The Limbang estuary is currently not protected as most of it is untitled state land. However, its adjacent areas in Brunei Darussalam, Pulau Siarau, Pulau Berambang and Sungai Brunei are conservation areas.Howes and NPWO (1986) proposed the conservation of the mangroves and intertidal mudflats to link with adjacent areas in Brunei and to establish an International Coastal Resource Conservation Area within Brunei Bay. Forestry management proposals and restrictions on illegal logging were also recommended. Salter and MacKenzie (1981) also proposed that the Sungai Limbang mangroves be designated as a Wildlife Sanctuary for the protection of the Proboscis Monkey (Nasalis larvatus). Protection of the Limbang mangroves was also echoed by Bennett and Gombek (1986) based on the following reasons;Limbang is Sarawak's only major contribution to Brunei Bay fishery.Limbang links two protected sections of Brunei's mangroves. Destruction of Limbang will result in faunal degradation and reduced protection of Brunei areas.Brunei Bay's Proboscis Monkey (N. larvatus) population is the only significant one between Sandakan and Rajang Delta.Brunei Bay has a population of the Silvered Leaf-Monkey, an endangered primate in Sarawak.Trusan-Sundar: The majority of the Trusan-Sundar mangroves are contained within the Kenalian, Bumbun and Terentang Forest Reserves, where logging has been extremely intensive. Areas up to 1 ha or more have been virtually clear-felled. Only the area between Sungai Sepatai and Sungai Awat-Awat is relatively untouched with a more or less intact canopy. Howes and NPWO (1986) proposed the creation of a Wildlife Sanctuary and management of the mangrove production forest. Under the proposal, the site forms a link with areas in Brunei Darussalam as an International Coastal Resource Conservation Area. Salter and MacKenzie (1981) proposed the undisturbed mangroves between Kuala Bangau and Kuala Trusan to be made a Wildlife Sanctuary for the protection of Proboscis Monkeys (Nasalis larvatus).Menumbok: Menumbok Forest Reserve cover 5,710ha, under the category of Class I FR. The inter-tidal mudflats are not included within the forest reserve.
References DWNP. 1987. Malaysian Wetland Directory. Peninsular Malaysia: Department of Wildlife and National Parks.Howes, J.R. and NPWO. 1986. Evaluation of Sarawak wetlands and their importance to waterbirds. Report 4: Limbang/Lawas Districts of Brunei Bay. INTERWADER Publication No. 14. Kuala Lumpur: Asian Wetland Bureau.IUCN. 2002. 2002 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.redlist.org (23 June 2003).Sebastian, A. 1999. 1997-1998 Records of Globally Threatened Species from Peat Swamp Forest in Malaysia. Suara Enggang 1: 17-18.Sebastian, A.C. 1998. Preliminary Ecological Assessment of the Klias Peninsula, Beaufort District, Sabah, Malaysia. Aonyx Environmental Services. (Internal Report)Sebastian, A.C. (1995) Environmental Impact Assessment - Proposed Oil Palm Plantation at Trusan, Lawas. (Ecological section). Tradewinds Plantations.Smythies, B.E. 1999. The Birds of Borneo (4th Edition). Revised by Davison, G.W.H.. Kota Kinabalu: Natural History Publications (Borneo) Sdn. Bhd.
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