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Location Malaysia, Sarawak
Central coordinates 110o 25.00' East  1o 44.00' North
IBA criteria A1, A3, A4i
Area 3,590 ha
Altitude 0 - 900m
Year of IBA assessment 2004

Malaysian Nature Society



Site description The site encompasses the twin promontories that form the donkey-ears of Kuching. The western promontory is Gunung Santubong, and the eastern promontory the sandstone plateau of Bako National Park. Between these is the Bako-Buntal Bay, an expanse of inter-tidal mudflats fringed with mangrove forest. Numerous rivers flow into the sea, the major ones being Sg. Sarawak and Sg. Bako, emerging on either side of the Bako plateau and Sg. Buntal and Sg. Santubong, emerging either side of Gunung Santubong. This vast delta constitutes the Sarawak Mangroves, the most extensive mangrove forest in western Sarawak. The descriptions of this IBA are divided into three parts: Gunung Santubong, Bako-Buntal Bay and Bako National Park. (I) Physical CharacteristicsSantubong: An 810m sandstone mountain, connected to the mainland by a narrow (not more than 1.5km) strip of land. The coastline is rocky, with small sandy coves. The western side of the mountain is rises steeply, covered with mixed dipterocarp forest. The eastern side has gentler slopes, with heath forest grading into MDF higher up. Above 600m, vertical cliff faces are exposed in areas. The top is narrow and deeply incised in parts, forming crevices. Numerous clearwater streams flow down its slopes, forming cascades. The rocky shoreline shows weathering on the west, exposing rock and boulder beds during low tides. The eastern side is less weathered, probably a result of the sheltering effect of the bay. Less exposure is evident during low tides.The tall forest has never been commercially logged, but illegal extraction of larger trees is rampant. The lower slopes along the western side have been developed into a resort city, with numerous hotels, outdoor recreational facilities, sea-facing golf courses and the world renowned Sarawak Cultural Village are located here. Numerous trails extend into the forest, including a trail to the summit. The eastern side remains un-developed.Bako-Buntal Bay: a semi-circular bay bordered by Gunung Santubong to the west and Bako National park to the east. Roughly 15km wide between the promontories, narrowing to less than 5km between the Sg. Bako and Sg. Buntal at its base. Mangrove forest stretches between the two promontories. The bay is shallow, consisting of a sandy substrate overlaid with mud closer to the estuaries. The inter-tidal environment is dynamic, with constantly shifting sandbars. During very low tides, almost a third of the bay is exposed sandflats and mudflats. The October to February monsoon causes rough weather in the bay, and the mangrove shoreline is being seriously affected by erosion. On the eastern side, areas of mangrove have been cleared for aquaculture farms.Bako NP: Bako National Park is Sarawak's oldest national park to protect rocky coastlines, which are rare in the State, and unusual landscapes with scenery of exceptional beauty. It lies on the Muara Tebas Peninsula, which faces the South China Sea. The national park is formed from a sandstone plateau covering the northern part of the headland. Thick layers of white to pale buff sandstone, which lie in almost horizontal position, build up the plateau. The sandstone is coarse to medium-grained and contains scattered pebbles of quartz and chert. Conglomerates, consisting of rounded pebbles and grains in a sandy matrix, are abundantly present. Thin layers of mudstone are occasionally seen between the sandstone beds. These rocks attain a thickness of at least 290 m and are called the Plateau Sandstone Formation (Good, 1988; Tan, 1993). Several hills are situated on the plateau and the highest is Bukit Gondol (260 m asl). Soils on the plateau range from coarse sand to clay and from thick to thin. The soil composition in the national park depends to a large extent on the type of rocks underlying the soil. Soils on low-lying areas include riverine or alluvial soils, mangrove soils, podsols and red-yellow pozolic soils (Brunig, 1974).(II) Climatic ConditionsThere is a marked seasonal climate in the area. Annual rainfall of about 4,300 mm is concentrated during the wet season from November-February. The average rainfall during May-September is less than 200 mm per month. Temperature ranges between 20oC-30oC (Good, 1988).

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus 2004  present [units unknown]  A1  Vulnerable 
Chinese Egret Egretta eulophotes 2004  present [units unknown]  A1, A4i  Vulnerable 
Christmas Island Frigatebird Fregata andrewsi non-breeding  2004  present [units unknown]  A1  Critically Endangered 
Lesser Sand Plover Charadrius mongolus winter  2004  present [units unknown]  A4i  Least Concern 
Greater Sand Plover Charadrius leschenaultii winter  2004  present [units unknown]  A4i  Least Concern 
Far Eastern Curlew Numenius madagascariensis winter  2004  present [units unknown]  A4i  Vulnerable 
Spotted Greenshank Tringa guttifer 2004  present [units unknown]  A1  Endangered 
Chinese Crested Tern Sterna bernsteini non-breeding  2004  present [units unknown]  A1  Critically Endangered 
Straw-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus zeylanicus 2004  present [units unknown]  A1  Vulnerable 
Hook-billed Bulbul Setornis criniger 2004  present [units unknown]  A1  Vulnerable 
Large-billed Blue-flycatcher Cyornis caerulatus 2004  present [units unknown]  A1  Vulnerable 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Bako Communal Forest 870 protected area contained by site 870  
Bako National Park 3,470 protected area overlaps with site 2,728  
Kuching Wetlands National Park Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar) 6,610 protected area overlaps with site 0  

Habitats

IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest   -
Wetlands (inland)   -
Coastline   -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
fisheries/aquaculture -
tourism/recreation -

Other biodiversity The area supports a steadily increasing population of Proboscis Monkey (Bornean endemic colubine). Initially confined to Bako National Park, protection has increased the population within the Park to levels beyond its carrying capacity, and the excess is spreading across the bay and into Santubong. Groups can now be easily seen up the mountain and in the mangroves fringing the bay. The waters within the bay and its immediate surroundings support at least three species of dolphin: Indo-pacific Hump-back Dolphin Sousa chinensis, Finless Porpoise Neophocaena phocaenoides (Beasley, 1998) and Irrawaddy Dolphin Orcaella brevirostris. Irrawaddy Dolphins are relatively common in the bay, perhaps the most important, viable population in Sarawak. They are also increasingly becoming habituated, and dolphin-watching activities are increasing. Further off-shore in clearer waters, Sousa, and possibly Trusiops truncatus also occur. Orcealla brevirostrisy DolphinsThe only record for Borneo of Pygmy Sperm Whale Kogia breviceps was that of a stranding at Buntal on 19 February 1958 (Harrisson & Jamuh, 1958). The type specimen of the Borneo White Dolphin Sotalia borneensis, was collected at Tanjung Sipang, on the eastern side of the Bako promontory (mouth of the Sarawak river) in 1901 (Lydekker, 1901), but has subsequently been included as a predominantly pink form of Sousa chinensis.The brackish waters of the mangrove delta support a healthy population of Estuarine Crocodile Crocodylus porosus, and larger individuals can be observed basking along exposed mudbanks. Crocodile watching activities have failed to take off due to persistent culling of the population by the state authorities, in response to un-substantiated incidents of "attacks".Twenty-three species of mammals have been recorded in Bako NP (Rothschild, 1971; Start, 1972; Churchill and Zborowski, 1987; Hazebroek and Abang Kashim bin Abang Morshidi, 2000; Salter and Aken, 1983; Francis et al., 1984). Plants of interest include the ant plant Myrmecodia tuberosa, Clerodendrum fistulosum, Johannesteijsmannia altifrons, six species of Nepenthes spp., Drosera spathulata, Pholidocarpus maiadum and Cycas rumphii (Hazebroek and Abang Kashim bin Abang Morshidi, 2000).Globally threatened mammals (IUCN, 2002): Proboscis Monkey, Silvered Leaf-Monkey, Irrawaddy Dolphin, Indo-Pacific Hump-backed Dolphin, Bottlenose Dolphin ENDANGERED: Proboscis Monkey Nasalis larvatus; VULNERABLE: Cox's Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros coxi; NEAR THREATENED: Long-tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis; DATA DEFICIENT: Hairy-nosed Otter Lutra sumatrana(II) Globally threatened reptiles (IUCN, 2002):(III) Globally threatened plants (IUCN, 2002): CRITICAL: Shorea longiflora, S. slootenii, S. elliptica, Dipterocarpus costulatus; ENDANGERED: Dryobalanops beccarii, Shorea bracteolata, S. pauciflora, S. ovata, S. stenoptera, Cotylelobium burckii; VULNERABLE: Sarawakodendron filamentosum, Nageia maxima, Microtropis rigida, Shorea macrophylla, Combretocarpus rotundatus; LOWER RISK/conservation dependent: Nepenthes albomarginata

Protection status Santubong: Currently under State land. There are no plans to afford any legislative protection to this area. More development is planned for the mountain.Bako-Buntal Bay: Not protected. The mangrove forest belong to the Sarawak Mangrove Forest Reserve.Bako: Gazetted as a National Park in 1957 under the National Parks and Nature (Amendment) Ordinance 1990. The protected area covers the whole northern part of the Muara Tebas Peninsula. All forms of habitat disturbance and wildlife hunting are prohibited. However, in some cases, local communities that depend on resources within the park are granted exclusive rights to harvest them (Good, 1988). The Bako National Park is an IUCN Category II protected area.

Related state of the world's birds case studies

References Ashton, P.S. 1971. The Plants and Vegetation of Bako National Park. Malayan Nature Journal 24: 151-162.Beasley, I. (1998) Research on Irrawaddy Dolphin Orcaella brevirostris in East Malaysia. Internal report to Ocean Park Conservation Foundation, Hong Kong and Institute of Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation, UNIMAS, Sarawak.Brunig, E.F. 1974. Ecological Studies in the kerangas Forest of Sarawak and Brunei. Kuching: Borneo Literature Bureau.Churchill, S. and Zborowski, P. 1987. Bat survey of Bako National Park, Sarawak. Sarawak Museum Journal 37(58): 171-180.Croxall, J.P. 1969. Bird notes from Sarawak: September-October 1968. Sarawak Museum Journal 17: 391-398.Edwards, P.J. and Polshek, P.M. 1987. A wader survey of the western coastline of Sarawak. Sarawak Museum Journal 37(58): 181-193.Francis, C.M., Melville, D.S. and Wong, P.L. 1984. Notes on some bats in Bako National Park and Samunsam Wildlife Sanctuary, Sarawak. Sarawak Museum Journal 33(54): 171-176.Good, L. 1988. Bako National Park: A Management Plan. Kuching: National Parks and Wildlife Office.Gregory-Smith, R. 1997a. Red-footed Booby Sula sula - First record for Sarawak. Malayan Nature Journal 50: 357-358.Gregory-Smith, R. 1997b. Bird Report-Sarawak 1996. Sarawak Museum Journal 72: 131-143.Gregory-Smith, R. 1996. Bird Report-Sarawak 1995. Sarawak Museum Journal 71: 93-110.Gregory-Smith, R. 1995. Bird Report-Sarawak 1994. Sarawak Museum Journal 69: 181-190.Harrisson, T. and Jamuh G. (1958) Pygmy Sperm Whale (Kogia breviceps) in Borneo. Nature 4634:543.Hazebroek, H.P. and Abang Kashim bin Abang Morshidi. 2000. National Parks of Sarawak. Kota Kinabalu: Natural History Publications (Borneo).IUCN. 2002. 2002 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.redlist.org (23 June 2003).Jeyarajasingam, A., Noramly, G. and Ooi, C.H. (compilers) 2001a. Recent Sightings. Suara Enggang 1 (January-February): 33-47.Lomosse, H. and Lomosse, A,-C. 1987. Borneo 1987: Sabah and Sarawak. (Unpublished). Lydekker, R. (1901) Notice of an apparently new estuarine dolphin from Borneo. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1: 88-91.McCormick, K.J. 1976. Sarawak Bird Notes - 1975. Sarawak Museum Journal 24: 269-271.Radcliffe, G. and Tyler, C. 1984. Birdwatching in Bako National Park. Sarawak: Forest Department.Rothschild, G. 1971. Animals in Bako National Park. Malayan Nature Journal 24: 163-169.Salter, R.E. and Aken, K.M. 1983. The Proboscis Monkey in Bako National Park, Sarawak. Tigerpaper 10(3): 6-8.Sebastian, A.C. (2003) Kampung Buntal Waterfowl Census Results 2000-2002. (MNS Kuching Branch Internal Report).Sebastian, A.C. and Kong, D. (2001) Bird Species recorded in Bako National Park. (MNS Kuching Branch Internal Report).Smythies, B.E. 1999. The Birds of Borneo (4th Edition). Revised by Davison, G.W.H.. Kota Kinabalu: Natural History Publications (Borneo) Sdn. Bhd.Sreedharan, S. 1987. Bako National Park. The Birds of Teluk Asam. Kuching: National Parks & Wildlife Office, Forest Department.Start, A.N. 1972. Some bats of Bako National Park, Sarawak. Sarawak Museum Journal 20(40&41): 371-376.Tan, D.N.K. 1993. Geology of the Kuching Area, West Sarawak, Malaysia. Geological Survey of Malaysia, Report 16.Yeap, C.A. (compiler). 2002. The Asian Waterfowl Census 2002: Country Report (Malaysia). Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Nature Society.Yeap, C.A., Sebastian, A. and Siti Hawa Yatim (compilers) 2003. The Asian Waterbird Census 2003 Country Report (Malaysia). Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Nature Society.

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