email a friend
printable version
Location Indonesia, Lampung
Central coordinates 105o 15.00' East  4o 28.00' South
IBA criteria A1, A4i, A4iii
Area 13,600 ha
Year of IBA assessment 2004

Burung Indonesia (Affiliate)

Site description This floodplain becomes a shallow lake every rainy season. This area is important for hydrological control, mostly because there are new transmigration settlement at the down stream. This area located along the Tulang Bawang River from Menggala. The valley in Rawa Tenuk has open seasonal swamps. Mouth of Rawa Tenuk covered by water hyacinth on certain seasons.Originally Tulang Bawang area covers 86000 ha, which located between estuary and Menggala city in Lampung provinve. Around 90% consist of wooden swamp, Melaleuca secondary forest, and almost 10% mangrove forest and remaining riparian forest. Transmigration project in this area has caused 1/4 of mangrove forest converted into agriculture canals. 60% of mangrove forest converted into brackish pond (Giesen 1991)

Key Biodiversity Important value of this site is known since 1970s for population of Bronze-winged Jacana Metapodius indicus (Marle & Voous 1988). Milky Stork Mycterea cinerea (more than 50 birds) also recorded many times, as well as Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilus javanicu. The populations probably come from Way Kambas & other coastal population.Although herons are common, but other waterbirds in big number always undetected (Giesen 1991, Lambert 1988) until Juny 1993 recorded by D. Holmes; repeated by Wetland International (Noor 1994. Holmes & Noor 1995) which shown the important value of this site:- Bird colony in Rawa Pacing. In 1994, 45 ha Phragmites support:1. > 60600 Javan Pond-heron Ardeola speciosa2. > 3300 Black-crowned Night-heron Nycticorax nycticorax3. > 2400 Great Egret Egretta alba4. c. 400 Purple Heron Ardea purpurea5. c. 300 Intermedate Egret Egretta intermedia6. c. 100 Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis7. c. 100 Little Egret Egretta garzettaIt is the biggest breeding area in Indonesia for Javan Pond-heron Ardeola speciosa and Great Egret Egretta alba, and the first place in Sumatra known as night-heron site.- Rantau Kandis colony. In 1994 there were two trees support 48 nest of Oriental Darter Anhingia melanogaster and 9 nest of Grey Heron Arderea cinerea. This area has already disturbed, and this bird colony just established because other bigger colonies around the are has been destroyed. This site was the only site known as Oriental Darter Anhingia melanogaster breeding site.- Rawa Tenuk. This area is one of the area that supports a population of Bronze-winged Jacana Metapodius indicus in Indonesia. In Java this bird has been regarded as extinct as breeding species (van Balen personal comunication). Verheugt 1993 didn't find this bird in seasonal lake area in South Sumatra, where the bird was predicted to be present there. Rawa Tenuk formerly has White-winged Duck Cairina scutulata (Holmes 1977), but now believed to be extinct because disturbance and loosing nesting area.This site is also important for wetland birds both residence and migrant i.e. Milky Stork Mycterea cinerea and Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilus javanicus, 3 species Ixobycus, Sunda Teal Anas gibberifrons, Cotton Pygmy-Goose Nettapus coromandelianus, cormorant, crake, rail such as Purple Swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio.Formerly this site also supported migrant species Pheasant-tail Jacana Hydrophasianus chirurgus.

Non-bird biodiversity: There are Cervus unicolor, Helarctos malayanus, Macaca fascicularis, Macaca nemestrina and Presbytis cristata in this area (Giesen 1991a)

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
White-winged Duck Asarcornis scutulata resident  2004  present  A1  Endangered 
Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Milky Stork Mycteria cinerea resident  2004  present  A1  Endangered 
Javan Pond-heron Ardeola speciosa unknown  2004  present  A4i  Least Concern 
Great White Egret Ardea alba unknown  2004  present  A4i  Least Concern 
Oriental Darter Anhinga melanogaster resident  2004  present  A4i  Near Threatened 
A4iii Species group - waterbirds unknown  2004  20,000 individuals  unknown  A4iii   


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Wetlands (inland) Riverine floodplains  80%
Forest   5%

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
nature conservation and research -
other -

Protection status This area including Rawa Tenuk, Rawa Bakung, Rawa Bungur, Bawang Belimbing and Bawang Lambu Purus with the total area of 12100 ha has a status as Game Reserve. Meanwhile the area of Rawa Pacing (600 ha) and Rantau Kandis (900 ha) has the status as Nature Reserve.

References Giesen, W. 1991. Tulang Bawang swamps, Lampung. PHPA/AWB Sumatra Wetland Project Report No. 15, Bogor.Holmes, D. 1977. A report on the White-winged Wood Duck in southern Sumatra. Wildfowl 28: 61-64.Holmes, D.A. and Noor, Y.R. 1995. Discovery of waterbird colonies in North Lampung, Sumatra. Kukila 7(2): 121-128Lambert, F.R. 1988. The status of the White-winged Duck in Sumatra, Indonesia. A preliminary assesment. PHPA-AWB/Interwader Report No. 4.Marle, J.G. van and Voous, K.H. 1988. The birds of Sumatra: an annotated check-list. British Ornithologists Union Check-list No. 10. Tring, UK.Noor, Y.R., Giesen, W., Hanafiah, E.W., and Silvius, M.J. 1994. Reconnaissance survey of the Western Tulang Bawang swamps, Lampung, Sumatra. PHPA/AWB-Indonesia, Bogor.Verheugt, W.J.M., Skov, H. and Danielsen, F. 1993. Notes on birds of the tidal lowlands and floodplains of South Sumatra. Kukila 6(2): 53-84.

Contribute  Please click here to help BirdLife conserve the world's birds - your data for this IBA and others are vital for helping protect the environment.

Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Rawa Tulang Bawang. Downloaded from on 22/10/2016

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife