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Location Indonesia, Lampung
Central coordinates 105o 15.00' East  4o 28.00' South
IBA criteria A1, A4i, A4iii
Area 13,600 ha
Year of IBA assessment 2004

Burung Indonesia (Affiliate)

Site description This floodplain becomes a shallow lake every rainy season. This area is important for hydrological control, mostly because there are new transmigration settlement at the down stream. This area located along the Tulang Bawang River from Menggala. The valley in Rawa Tenuk has open seasonal swamps. Mouth of Rawa Tenuk covered by water hyacinth on certain seasons.Originally Tulang Bawang area covers 86000 ha, which located between estuary and Menggala city in Lampung provinve. Around 90% consist of wooden swamp, Melaleuca secondary forest, and almost 10% mangrove forest and remaining riparian forest. Transmigration project in this area has caused 1/4 of mangrove forest converted into agriculture canals. 60% of mangrove forest converted into brackish pond (Giesen 1991)

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
White-winged Duck Asarcornis scutulata resident  2004  present  A1  Endangered 
Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Milky Stork Mycteria cinerea resident  2004  present  A1  Endangered 
Javan Pond-heron Ardeola speciosa unknown  2004  present  A4i  Least Concern 
Great White Egret Ardea alba unknown  2004  present  A4i  Least Concern 
Oriental Darter Anhinga melanogaster resident  2004  present  A4i  Near Threatened 
A4iii Species group - waterbirds unknown  2004  20,000 individuals  unknown  A4iii   


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Wetlands (inland) Riverine floodplains  80%
Forest   5%

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
nature conservation and research -
other -

Other biodiversity There are Cervus unicolor, Helarctos malayanus, Macaca fascicularis, Macaca nemestrina and Presbytis cristata in this area (Giesen 1991a)

Protection status This area including Rawa Tenuk, Rawa Bakung, Rawa Bungur, Bawang Belimbing and Bawang Lambu Purus with the total area of 12100 ha has a status as Game Reserve. Meanwhile the area of Rawa Pacing (600 ha) and Rantau Kandis (900 ha) has the status as Nature Reserve.

References Giesen, W. 1991. Tulang Bawang swamps, Lampung. PHPA/AWB Sumatra Wetland Project Report No. 15, Bogor.Holmes, D. 1977. A report on the White-winged Wood Duck in southern Sumatra. Wildfowl 28: 61-64.Holmes, D.A. and Noor, Y.R. 1995. Discovery of waterbird colonies in North Lampung, Sumatra. Kukila 7(2): 121-128Lambert, F.R. 1988. The status of the White-winged Duck in Sumatra, Indonesia. A preliminary assesment. PHPA-AWB/Interwader Report No. 4.Marle, J.G. van and Voous, K.H. 1988. The birds of Sumatra: an annotated check-list. British Ornithologists Union Check-list No. 10. Tring, UK.Noor, Y.R., Giesen, W., Hanafiah, E.W., and Silvius, M.J. 1994. Reconnaissance survey of the Western Tulang Bawang swamps, Lampung, Sumatra. PHPA/AWB-Indonesia, Bogor.Verheugt, W.J.M., Skov, H. and Danielsen, F. 1993. Notes on birds of the tidal lowlands and floodplains of South Sumatra. Kukila 6(2): 53-84.

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Rawa Tulang Bawang. Downloaded from on 02/10/2014

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