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Location Indonesia, Jambi
Central coordinates 104o 20.00' East  1o 27.00' South
IBA criteria A1, A3
Area 300,000 ha
Altitude 0 - 15m
Year of IBA assessment 2004

Burung Indonesia (Affiliate)

Site description Berbak is one of two RAMSAR sites in Indonesia (Scott 1989). This swamp area recognise as an extensive peat-swamp forest in the Pacific Realm (Mijn & Rahman 1992), although the northern and the eastern parts of this area was cleared (along of Batang Hari River and enclave at coastal area). Long drought in 1997 caused fire, mainly at the edges around 18000 to 24000 ha.Fire occured in the middle part of the area caused by jelutung collection. More than 32000 ha forest on the northwest was cleared or damage by fire at the end of 1997. Sibuea (1998) report on fire of 60 ha, still questionable.

Key Biodiversity This area is important for swamp bird species, although more research is still needed. Storm's Stork Ciconia stormi recorded in Air Hitam Dalam (Silvius & Verheugt 1986), Jerdon's Baza Aviceda jerdoni, Wallace's Hawk-eagle Spizaetus nanus, Black Partridge Melanoperdix nigra and other hornbill species also exist in this area. Follow-up research for Air Hitam Dalam by Burn & Brickle (1992), confirm the existence of Storm's Stork Ciconia stormi, Milky Stork Mycterea cinerea, and White-winged Duck Cairina scutulata. White-winged Duck frequently seen feeding in Kumpeh upper course, and this area considered important for this species.Survey between 1995-1996 (Sibuea 1997) showed the three important areas for White-winged Duck along the Batang Hari River in the vicinity of Berbak, i.e. area in Kumpeh River, Rambut River and Air Hitam Dalam, which located in the border of Berbak, and Gedung Karya, with population estimated around 11-21 adult birds (+ 15 juveniles). New data is needed, after fire happened in this area in 1997.

Non-bird biodiversity: Arctitis binturong, Dicerohinus sumatraensis, Helarctos malayanus, Hylobates agilis, Lutra sumatranus, Martes flavigula, Neofelis nebulosa and Tapirus indicus, Amyda cartilagenia, Tomistoma schlegelii (Silvus 1984, Wibowo & Suyatno 1997 & 1998, Colijn 1999).There are 23 species of Palm and considered to be the richest area for palm in the world (Wibowo & Suyatno 1997).

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Black Partridge Melanoperdix niger resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
White-winged Duck Asarcornis scutulata resident  2004  present  A1  Endangered 
Milky Stork Mycteria cinerea resident  2004  present  A1  Endangered 
Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Storm's Stork Ciconia stormi resident  2004  present  A1  Endangered 
Spotted Greenshank Tringa guttifer winter  2004  present  A1  Endangered 
Silvery Pigeon Columba argentina resident  2004  present  A1  Critically Endangered 
Alcedo euryzona resident  2004  present  A1  Not Recognised 

IBA Monitoring

2004 medium not assessed not assessed
Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data

Biological resource use logging & wood harvesting - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Human intrusions and disturbance work and other activities happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Natural system modifications dams & water management/use - abstraction of surface water (agricultural use) happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Natural system modifications fire & fire suppression - increase in fire frequency/intensity happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Berbak National Park 162,700 protected area contained by site 162,700  
Berbak Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar) 162,700 protected area contained by site 162,700  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Wetlands (inland)   major
Forest Peat swamp forest (tropical)  -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
nature conservation and research 90%
forestry -

Protection status Declared as National Park based on SK Menhut No. 285/Kpts-II/1992 with the total area of 162700 ha (Anon 1995, Wibowo & Suyatno 1997, Anon 1998).

References Anon. 1995. National Conservation Plan forIndonesia (3 A-H). Ministry of Forestry, Directorate General of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation, Jakarta.Anon. 1998. Statistik Perlindungan Hutan dan Pelestarian Alam 1997/1998. Departemen Kehutanan dan Perkebunan, Direktorat Jenderal Perlindungan Hutan dan Pelestarian Alam, Jakarta.Burn, J. and Brickle, N. 1992. Spirit of Sumatra 1992: preliminary report. Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust, UK.Colijn, E.O. 2000. The Indonesian Nature Conservation Database. URL:, D.A. and Poole, C.M. 1989. A status overview of Asian wetlands (based on "A Directory of Asian Wetlands"). Asian Wetland Bureau.Silvius, M.J. and Verheugt, W.J.M. 1986. The birds of Berbak Game Reserve, Jambi Province, Sumatra. Kukila 2(4): 76-84.Sibuea, T.H. 1998. Forest fire effect on population and habitat white-winged duck Cairina scutulata in Way Kambas, Lampung and Berbak, Jambi. PHPA/Wetlands International-Indonesia Programme, WWT Slimbridge, Bogor.Sibuea, T.H., Nurhayati and Whisnu, S. 1997. Survei White-winged Duck Cairina scutulata di Taman Nasional Berbak, Jambi dan sekitarnya. PHPA/Wetlands International-Indonesia Programme, WWT Slimbridge, Bogor.Silvius, M.J., Simons, H.W. and Verheugt, W.J.M. 1984. Soils, vegetation, fauna and nature conservation of the Berbak Game Reserve, Sumatra, Indonesia. RIN Contributions to Research on Management of Natural Resources 1984-3. Arnhem, the Netherlands.Wibowo, P. & Suyatno, N. 1998. An overview of Indonesian Wetland Sites - II: an update information - Included in the Indonesian Wetland Database. Wetlands Intenational-Indonesia Programme/PHPA; Bogor.Wibowo, P. & Suyatno, N. 1997. An overview of Indonesian Wetland Sites-included in Wetland database. Wetlands International-Indonesia Programme/PHPA, Bogor.

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Berbak. Downloaded from on 24/10/2016

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