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Location Thailand, Phetchaburi,Prachuap Khiri Khan
Central coordinates 99o 22.00' East  12o 52.00' North
IBA criteria A1, A3
Area 291,500 ha
Altitude 100 - 1,513m
Year of IBA assessment 2004

Bird Conservation Society of Thailand

Site description The IBA comprises Kaeng Krachan National Park, the largest national park in Thailand. The site is located in the Tenasserim range, which forms the international border between Thailand and Myanmar. The topography of much of the site is hilly or mountainous. The vegetation at the site is dominated by semi-evergreen forest, with wetter lowland evergreen forest occurring in the interior of the park, and hill evergreen forest being found above 1,000 m asl. Several plant species with more southerly distributions occur at the site, for example Orania sylvicola, Diptercarpus dyeri and Archidendron jaringa. The lower reaches of two major streams have been dammed to form Kaeng Krachan reservoir, which covers c.4,500 ha. Parts of the site have been logged.

Key Biodiversity The site is situated in a transition zone between the Sundaic, Indochinese and Sino-Himalayan avifaunas, and, consequently, supports a rich and diverse avifauna. By 2000, 413 bird species had been recorded at the site, more than at any other single site in Thailand. Most notably, the site supports significant populations of five globally threatened species: Plain-pouched Hornbill Aceros subruficollis, Blue-banded Kingfisher Alcedo euryzona, White-fronted Scops Owl Otus sagittatus, Silver Oriole Oriolus mellianus and Grey-sided Thrush Turdus feae. A sixth globally threatened species, Brown-chested Jungle Flycatcher Rhinomyias brunneata, has been recorded at the site but is thought to be a rare winter visitor that does not regularly occur in significant numbers. A large number of globally near-threatened species have been recorded at the site, at least 25 of which are thought to regularly occur in significant numbers. Many of these species are characteristic of the Sundaic Lowland Forests (Biome 14), and reach the northern limit of their ranges at the site. Another notable feature of the avifauna of Kaeng Krachan National Park is the occurrence of an isolated population of Ratchet-tailed Treepie Temnurus temnurus, the only known population of the species in Thailand, which is almost 2,000 km from the rest of its known range in Lao P.D.R., Vietnam and southern China. The site qualifies under criterion A3 because it supports 26 species restricted to the Sino-Himalayan Subtropical Forests (Biome 08), 18 species restricted to the Indochinese Tropical Moist Forests (Biome 09) and 40 species restricted to the Sundaic Lowland Forests (Biome 14).

Non-bird biodiversity: Mammals Asian Elephant Elephas maximus (EN) Tiger Panthera tigris (EN) Asian Tapir Tapirus indicus (EN) Southern Serow Capricornis sumatraensis (VU) Dhole Cuon alpinus (VU) East Asian Porcupine Hystrix brachyura (VU) Bear Macaque Macaca arctoides (VU) Northern Pig-tailed Macaque Macaca leonina (VU) Asian Black Bear Ursus thibetanus (VU) Gaur Bos frontalis (VU) Reptiles Siamese Crocodile Crocodylus siamensis (CR) Plants Aquilaria crassna (CR) Hopea helferi (CR) Parashorea stellata (CR) Hopea odorata (VU) Pterocarpus indicus (VU)

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
White-fronted Scops-owl Otus sagittatus resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Alcedo euryzona resident  2004  present  A1  Not Recognised 
Plain-pouched Hornbill Rhyticeros subruficollis resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Silver Oriole Oriolus mellianus winter  2004  present  A1  Endangered 
Grey-sided Thrush Turdus feae winter  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 

IBA Monitoring

2008 high favourable medium

Agriculture and aquaculture annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Agriculture and aquaculture livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Biological resource use hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target) happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Natural system modifications dams & water management/use - dams (size unknown) happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Residential and commercial development tourism and recreation areas happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) moderate to rapid deterioration low

Forest   0 0 good (> 90%) good (> 90%) favourable

Whole area of site (>90%) covered by appropriate conservation designation  A management plan exists but it is out of date or not comprehensive  Substantive conservation measures are being implemented but these are not comprehensive and are limited by resources and capacity  medium 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Kaeng Krachan National Park 302,694 is identical to site 291,500  
Kaengkrachan Forest Complex ASEAN Heritage 2,914,700 protected area overlaps with site 251,158  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest   96%
Artificial - terrestrial Small settlements, rural gardens  4%

References Bird Conservation Society of Thailand Bulletin 20(4) (April 2003). Bird Conservation Society of Thailand Bulletin 20(5): 18-19 (May 2003). Bird Conservation Society of Thailand Bulletin 20(9): 17-18 (September 2003). Bird Conservation Society of Thailand Bulletin 11(11):13-14 (November 1994). BirdLife International (1998) Proceedings of the Thailand IBA workshop, Bangkok, November 1998. Unpublished report. BirdLife International (2001) Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International. Conservation Data Center, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok. National Park Division (2001) National parks in Thailand. Bangkok: Office of Natural Resource Conservation, Royal Forestry Department. Round, P. D. (1988) Resident forest birds in Thailand: their status and conservation. Cambridge, UK: International Council for Bird Preservation. Treesucon. U. (2000) Birds of Kaeng Krachan: check-list and guide to bird finding. Bangkok: Bird Conservation Society of Thailand. UNEP/World Conservation Monitoring Center website http//

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Kaeng Krachan. Downloaded from on 21/10/2016

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