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Location Thailand, Kanchanaburi,Tak
Central coordinates 98o 45.00' East  15o 25.00' North
IBA criteria A1, A3
Area 364,720 ha
Altitude 100 - 1,811m
Year of IBA assessment 2004

Bird Conservation Society of Thailand

Site description The IBA comprises Thung Yai-Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary, one of the largest protected areas in mainland South-east Asia, which lies along the international border with Myanmar. The site is situated within the Western Forest Complex, and adjoins Umphang Wildlife Sanctuary (IBA TH024) to the north, Huai Kha Kaeng Wildlife Sanctuary (IBA TH026) to the east, and Khao Laem (IBA TH027), Lam Khlong Ngu and Sri Nakarind (IBA TH028) National Parks to the south. The topography of the site is generally hilly or mountainous, with numerous permanent rivers and streams dividing the site into valleys and ridges. Notably, the site also includes a large central grassland plain, as well as Doi Khao Yai, one of the highest mountains in western Thailand. The principal vegetation types are hill evergreen forest (c.54,900 ha), dry evergreen forest (c.112,900 ha), mixed deciduous forest (c.164,100 ha), deciduous dipterocarp forest (c.3,600 ha), savanna woodland (c.9,900 ha), grassland (c.3,900 ha), a small area of swamp forest, and some areas of shifting cultivation (c.15,400 ha). Hill evergreen forest occupies the higher elevations, while the more level areas at moderate elevations generally support semi-evergreen forest, mixed deciduous forest and bamboo. In 1991, Thung Yai-Naresuan, together with the adjacent Huai Kha Kaeng Wildlife Sanctuary (IBA TH026), was designated as a World Heritage Site.

Key Biodiversity Thung Yai-Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary is one of the few sites in Thailand to support populations of larger-bodied birds characteristic of forest or successional habitats along undisturbed lowland waterways, such as the globally threatened White-winged Duck Cairina scutulata and Green Peafowl Pavo muticus. Other resident globally threatened species include Rufous-necked Hornbill Aceros nipalensis (which generally has a montane distribution), Plain-pouched Hornbill Aceros subruficollis and Blue-banded Kingfisher Alcedo euryzona. The latter is a Sundaic species that reaches the northernmost limit of its distribution at the site. The globally threatened Silver Oriole Oriolus mellianus has also been recorded at the site but is not confirmed to regularly occur in significant numbers. There are historical records of other globally threatened species from the site, including Pale-capped Pigeon Columba punicea (from 1986), Masked Finfoot Heliopais personata (from 1983) and Spot-billed Pelican Pelecanus philippensis (from 1984). In addition, six globally near-threatened species occur: Great Hornbill Buceros bicornis, Brown Hornbill Anorrhinus tickelli, Lesser Fish Eagle Ichthyophaga humilis, Black-and-yellow Broadbill Eurylaimus ochromalus, Green Broadbill Calyptomena viridis and Malaysian Honeyguide Indicator archipelagicus. The latter three species have a Sundaic distribution and reach their northern range limits at the site. Doi Khao Yai supports a typically Sino-Himalayan montane avifauna, including Green Cochoa Cochoa viridis, Chestnut-crowned Laughingthrush Garrulax erythrocephalus, Rusty-naped Pitta Pitta oatesi, White-necked Laughingthrush Garrulax strepitans, Rufous-throated Partridge Arborophila rufogularis and Coral-billed Scimitar Babbler Pomatorhinus ferruginosus The site qualifies under criterion A3 because it supports 33 species restricted to the Sino-Himalayan Subtropical Forests (Biome 08), 22 species restricted to the Indochinese Tropical Moist Forests (Biome 09) and 11 species restricted to the Indo-Malayan Tropical Dry Zone (Biome 11).

Non-bird biodiversity: Mammals Banteng Bos javanicus (EN) Asian Elephant Elephas maximus (EN) Tiger Panthera tigris (EN) Asian Tapir Tapirus indicus (EN) East Asian Porcupine Hystrix brachyura (VU) Northern Pig-tailed Macaque Macaca leonina (VU) Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus (VU) Gaur Bos frontalis (VU) Reptiles Elongated Tortoise Indotestudo elongata (EN) Fish Dwarf Botia Botia sidthimunki (CR) Schistura jarutanini (VU) Plants Parashorea stellata (CR) Anisoptera costata (EN) Dipterocarpus alatus (EN) Shorea roxburghii (EN) Endocomia canarioides (VU) Hopea odorata (VU) Knema austrosiamensis (VU)

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Green Peafowl Pavo muticus resident  2004  present  A1  Endangered 
White-winged Duck Asarcornis scutulata resident  2004  present  A1  Endangered 
Alcedo euryzona resident  2004  present  A1  Not Recognised 
Rufous-necked Hornbill Aceros nipalensis resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Plain-pouched Hornbill Rhyticeros subruficollis resident  2004  present  A1  Vulnerable 

IBA Monitoring

2008 low near favourable high

Agriculture and aquaculture annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Biological resource use hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target) happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Invasive & other problematic species, genes & diseases invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - unspecified species happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low

Forest   0 0 good (> 90%) moderate (70-90%) near favourable

Whole area of site (>90%) covered by appropriate conservation designation  A comprehensive and appropriate management plan exists that aims to maintain or improve the populations of qualifying bird species  The conservation measures needed for the site are being comprehensively and effectively implemented  high 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Khaoen Si Nakarin National Park 184,582 protected area is adjacent to site 0  
Mae Wong National Park 89,041 protected area is adjacent to site 0  
Thungyai - Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuaries World Heritage Site 577,464 protected area contains site 364,720  
Tung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary 369,166 protected area contains site 364,720  
Um-Phang Wildlife Sanctuary 248,915 protected area is adjacent to site 0  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Artificial - terrestrial   -
Forest   -
Grassland   -
Savanna   -

References Bird Conservation Society of Thailand Bulletin 19(6): 13-16 (June 2002). BirdLife International (1998) Proceedings of the Thailand IBA workshop, Bangkok, November 1998. Unpublished report. BirdLife International (2001) Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. Cambridge, U.K.: BirdLife International. Chantraratien, R. et al. (2001) The Western Forest Complex: the largest forest in Thailand. Bangkok: Seub Nakhasathien Foundation. Chiang Mai University Biology Department (1989) Seminar on biology VII: biological diversity in Thailand. Chiang Mai: Chiang Mai University. Forestry Department (1989) Master plan for Thung Yai-Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary management, Tak, Kanchanaburi. Bangkok: Kasetsart University. Jariwatkavi, N. (1988) Ecology of Asian Tapir in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary. Forestry Journal 7(3): 277-288. Nakhasathien, S. P. (1987) Forestry ecology and wildlife in Thung Yai-Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary. Bangkok: Duan Tula Printing. Phumiphakphan, N. (1983) Wildlife in Thung Yai-Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary. Forestry Journal 3(1): 1-85. Round, P. D. (1988) Resident forest birds in Thailand: their status and conservation. Cambridge, UK: International Council for Bird Preservation. Royal Forestry Department (2000) Inventory of wildlife sanctuaries in Thailand. Bangkok: Royal Forestry Department. Sukmasoung, R. (1993) Ecology of Asian wild elephant in Huai Kha Khaeng wildlife sanctuary, Uthaithani and Tak provinces. Masters thesis submitted to Kasetsart University. UNEP/World Conservation Monitoring Center website http// Wildlife Conservation Division (2000) Basic data for wildlife sanctuaries in Thailand. Bangkok: Office of Natural Resources Conservation, Forestry Department.

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Thung Yai - Naresuan. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016

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