email a friend
printable version
Location Peru, Cusco,Madre de Dios
Central coordinates 71o 46.00' West  12o 10.00' South
IBA criteria A1, A2, A3
Area 1,716,295 ha
Altitude 300 - 4,000m
Year of IBA assessment 2008





Site description El Parque Nacional del Manu y Zona Reservada del Manu se extienden desde las tierras bajas y laderas montañosas al oeste de Madre de Dios, ascendiendo hasta la zona de puna, sobre los 4.000 m, en la parte norte-central del departamento del Cusco. El Parque y la Zona Reservada incluyen la cuenca del río Manu, en su totalidad, y parcialmente, la del alto río Madre de Dios. El límite norte está constituido por la divisoria de aguas entre el río de las Piedras y el río Manu, y en el límite oeste, la cadena montañosa del Paucartambo, que divide las aguas del río Urubamba de la cuenca del alto Madre de Dios. Cubriendo todos los ecosistemas mayores del oriente peruano, desde la puna en las alturas, hasta las tierras bajas del bosque tropical, ésta es probablemente una de las áreas protegidas más biodiversas del planeta. Las actividades humanas están restringidas a los linderos del Parque, sin embargo, la actividad turística crece cada vez más en esta zona. En sus inmediaciones viven poblaciones agrupadas en más de 30 comunidades campesinas que mantienen el quechua como su lengua materna. También hay poblaciones nativas amazónicas pertenecientes a diferentes grupos lingüísticos que han ocupado la zona ancestralmente, como son las etnias Matsiguenka, Amahuaca, Yine, Amarakaeri, Huachipaire, Mashco-Piros y Nahua. El Manu es un buen ejemplo de producción en cuanto a investigaciones, probablemente en todo el Neotrópico. Se han generado alrededor de 22 tesis doctorales, una decena de tesis de maestría y más de 400 publicaciones en revistas científi cas de ciencias naturales y sociales. Los estudios se iniciaron en Cocha Cashu en 1972, en trabajo conjunto entre la Sociedad Zoológica de Frankfurt y Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Desde 1973 hasta la fecha los estudios han continuado dirigidos por J. Terborgh. Actualmente, el Proyecto Pro Manu, mediante convenio entre la Unión Europea y la República del Perú, lleva a cabo el Proyecto de Aprovechamiento y Manejo Sostenible de la Reserva de Biosfera y Parque Nacional del Manu. Los organismos de tutela son el Consejo Transitorio de Administración Regional de Madre de Dios y el INRENA, por parte del Estado Peruano, y la Comisión de la Unión Europea (Pro Manu 2004).

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Hooded Tinamou Nothocercus nigrocapillus resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Vulnerable 
Black Tinamou Tinamus osgoodi unknown  2008  present [units unknown]  A1, A2  Vulnerable 
Black-capped Tinamou Crypturellus atrocapillus resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Near Threatened 
Taczanowski's Tinamou Nothoprocta taczanowskii unknown  2008  present [units unknown]  A1, A2, A3  Vulnerable 
Wattled Guan Aburria aburri 2008  present [units unknown]  A1  Near Threatened 
Orinoco Goose Neochen jubata resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A1  Near Threatened 
Harpy Eagle Harpia harpyja resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A1  Near Threatened 
Semicollared Hawk Accipiter collaris 2008  present [units unknown]  A1  Near Threatened 
White-browed Hawk Leucopternis kuhli resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Solitary Eagle Harpyhaliaetus solitarius 2008  present [units unknown]  A1  Near Threatened 
Crested Eagle Morphnus guianensis resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A1  Near Threatened 
Black-and-chestnut Eagle Spizaetus isidori 2008  present [units unknown]  A1  Vulnerable 
Pale-winged Trumpeter Psophia leucoptera resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Buff-breasted Sandpiper Tryngites subruficollis resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A1  Near Threatened 
Bare-faced Ground-dove Metriopelia ceciliae resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Military Macaw Ara militaris resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A1  Vulnerable 
Blue-headed Macaw Primolius couloni resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A1, A3  Vulnerable 
Golden-plumed Parakeet Leptosittaca branickii 2008  present [units unknown]  A1  Vulnerable 
Black-capped Parakeet Pyrrhura rupicola resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Near Threatened 
Amazonian Parrotlet Nannopsittaca dachilleae 2008  present [units unknown]  A1, A3  Near Threatened 
White-bellied Parrot Pionites leucogaster resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Vulnerable 
Speckle-faced Parrot Pionus tumultuosus resident  2003  present [units unknown]    Least Concern 
Pale-rumped Swift Chaetura egregia resident  2003  present [units unknown]    Least Concern 
Koepcke's Hermit Phaethornis koepckeae resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A1, A3  Near Threatened 
Needle-billed Hermit Phaethornis philippii resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
White-browed Hermit Phaethornis stuarti resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Green-and-white Hummingbird Amazilia viridicauda resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Peruvian Piedtail Phlogophilus harterti resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A1, A2, A3  Near Threatened 
Violet-throated Starfrontlet Coeligena violifer resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Scaled Metaltail Metallura aeneocauda resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Blue-banded Toucanet Aulacorhynchus coeruleicinctis resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Curl-crested Aracari Pteroglossus beauharnaesii resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-breasted Mountain-toucan Andigena hypoglauca resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A1  Near Threatened 
Scarlet-hooded Barbet Eubucco tucinkae resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Versicoloured Barbet Eubucco versicolor resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Near Threatened 
Bar-breasted Piculet Picumnus aurifrons resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Fine-barred Piculet Picumnus subtilis resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Chestnut Jacamar Galbalcyrhynchus purusianus resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
White-throated Jacamar Brachygalba albogularis resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Blue-necked Jacamar Galbula cyanicollis resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Bluish-fronted Jacamar Galbula cyanescens resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Semicollared Puffbird Malacoptila semicincta resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Rufous-necked Puffbird Malacoptila rufa resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Sulphur-bellied Tyrant-manakin Neopelma sulphureiventer resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Cerulean-capped Manakin Lepidothrix coeruleocapilla resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Yungas Manakin Chiroxiphia boliviana resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Flame-crested Manakin Heterocercus linteatus resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Band-tailed Fruiteater Pipreola intermedia resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Black-faced Cotinga Conioptilon mcilhennyi resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Hazel-fronted Pygmy-tyrant Pseudotriccus simplex resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Bolivian Tyrannulet Zimmerius bolivianus resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Red-billed Tyrannulet Zimmerius cinereicapilla resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A2  Vulnerable 
Inca Flycatcher Leptopogon taczanowskii resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A2, A3  Near Threatened 
Unadorned Flycatcher Myiophobus inornatus resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Ochraceous-breasted Flycatcher Nephelomyias ochraceiventris resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Flammulated Bamboo-tyrant Hemitriccus flammulatus resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Rufous-bellied Bush-tyrant Myiotheretes fuscorufus resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A2, A3  Least Concern 
D'Orbigny's Chat-tyrant Ochthoeca oenanthoides resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Bamboo Antshrike Cymbilaimus sanctaemariae resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Bluish-slate Antshrike Thamnomanes schistogynus resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
White-eyed Antwren Epinecrophylla leucophthalma resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Sclater's Antwren Myrmotherula sclateri resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Ihering's Antwren Myrmotherula iheringi resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-rumped Antwren Terenura sharpei unknown  2008  present [units unknown]  A1, A2, A3  Endangered 
Manu Antbird Cercomacra manu resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Band-tailed Antbird Hypocnemoides maculicauda resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
White-lined Antbird Percnostola lophotes resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A2, A3  Near Threatened 
Goeldi's Antbird Myrmeciza goeldii resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A2, A3  Least Concern 
White-throated Antbird Gymnopithys salvini resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Slaty Gnateater Conopophaga ardesiaca resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Trilling Tapaculo Scytalopus parvirostris resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Bolivian Tapaculo Scytalopus bolivianus resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Rufous-fronted Antthrush Formicarius rufifrons resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A1, A2, A3  Near Threatened 
Elusive Antpitta Grallaria eludens resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A1, A2, A3  Least Concern 
White-throated Antpitta Grallaria albigula resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Red-and-white Antpitta Grallaria erythroleuca resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Amazonian Antpitta Hylopezus berlepschi resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Peruvian Recurvebill Simoxenops ucayalae resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A1, A3  Near Threatened 
Line-fronted Canastero Asthenes urubambensis unknown  2008  present [units unknown]  A1, A2, A3  Near Threatened 
Azara's Spinetail Synallaxis azarae resident  2003  present [units unknown]    Least Concern 
Cabanis's Spinetail Synallaxis cabanisi resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Near Threatened 
Chestnut-throated Spinetail Synallaxis cherriei 2008  present [units unknown]  A1  Near Threatened 
Marcapata Spinetail Cranioleuca marcapatae resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A2, A3  Vulnerable 
Creamy-crested Spinetail Cranioleuca albicapilla resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Buff-throated Treehunter Thripadectes scrutator resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Greater Scythebill Drymotoxeres pucherani 2008  present [units unknown]  A1  Near Threatened 
White-collared Jay Cyanolyca viridicyanus resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Near Threatened 
Peruvian Wren Cinnycerthia peruana resident  2003  A3  Least Concern 
White-eared Solitaire Entomodestes leucotis resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Dusky-green Oropendola Psarocolius atrovirens resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Selva Cacique Cacicus koepckeae unknown  2008  present [units unknown]  A1, A2, A3  Endangered 
Pale-eyed Blackbird Agelasticus xanthophthalmus resident  2003  present [units unknown]    Least Concern 
Black-and-white Tanager Conothraupis speculigera resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A1  Near Threatened 
Slaty Tanager Creurgops dentatus resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Rust-and-yellow Tanager Thlypopsis ruficeps resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-crested Tanager Tachyphonus rufiventer resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
White-winged Shrike-tanager Lanio versicolor resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Chestnut-bellied Mountain-tanager Delothraupis castaneoventris resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 
Golden-collared Tanager Iridosornis jelskii resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Moustached Flowerpiercer Diglossa mystacalis resident  2003  present [units unknown]  A3  Least Concern 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Manú National Park 1,716,295 is identical to site 1,716,295  
Manú National Park World Heritage Site 1,532,806 protected area contained by site 1,532,806  

Habitats

IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest Elfin forest; Montane broadleaf evergreen forest; Palm forest; Tropical lowland evergreen forest  major

Other biodiversity Entre la fauna globalmente amenazada de Manu se han reportado Panthera onca (NT), Puma concolor (NT), Tremarctos ornatus (VU), Tapirus terrestris (VU), Dactylomys peruanus (DD), Pteronura brasiliensis (EN), Melanosuchus niger (LR/cd) y Podocnemis unifilis (VU). Entre las plantas se presenta Bertholletia excelsa (VU).

Protection status El Parque Nacional del Manu fue establecido el 29 de mayo de 1973 por Decreto Supremo No 0644- 73-AG. La Zona Reservada de Manu fue creada por Resolución Suprema N°0151-80-AA-DGFF el 26 de junio de 1980. En 1977, la UNESCO lo reconoció como zona núcleo de la Reserva de Biosfera, mientras que en 1987 ha sido reconocido como Patrimonio Natural de la Humanidad.

References INRENA (2004j) PACHECO, V., PATTERSON, B. D., PATTON, J. L., EMMONS, L. H., SOLARI, S., Y ASCORRA, C. F. (1993) List of mammal species known to occur in Manu Biosphere Reserve, Peru. Publicaciones del Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Serie A Zoología 44: 1-12. PATTERSON, B. D., STOTZ, D. F., SOLARI, S., FITZPATRICK, J. W. Y PACHECO, V. (1998) Contrasting patterns of elevational zonation for birds and mammals in the Andes of southeastern Peru. J. Biogeogr. 25: 593-607. PRO-MANU (2004) Proyecto de aprovechamiento y manejo sostenible de la Reserva de Biosfera y Parque Nacional del Manu. Lima, Perú: Convenio Unión Europea / República de Perú Para el Aprovechamiento y Manejo Sostenible de la RB y PN del Manu) (Sin publicar). REPÚBLICA DEL PERÚ Y UNIÓN EUROPEA (2004) STOTZ, D. F., FITZPATRICK, J. W., PARKER III, T. A. Y MOSKOVITS D. K., (1996) Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. Chicago, EE.UU.: University of Chicago Press. TERBORGH, J., FITZPATRICK, J. Y EMMONS, L. (1984) Annotated checklist of bird and mammal species of Cocha Cashu Biological Station, Manu National park, Peru. Fieldiana Zoology 21.

Contribute  Please click here to help BirdLife conserve the world's birds - your data for this IBA and others are vital for helping protect the environment.

Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Manu. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/04/2014

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife