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Location Nepal, Bagmati
Central coordinates 85o 16.00' East  27o 37.00' North
IBA criteria A2, A3
Area 5,000 ha
Altitude 1,400 - 2,800m
Year of IBA assessment 2005

Bird Conservation Nepal (Partner Designate)



Site description Phulchoki Mountain, the highest peak on the rim of the Kathmandu Valley, lies 16 km southeast of Kathmandu. The mountain mainly comprises limestone and low-grade metamorphic marble. Phulchoki receives high rainfall and supports a luxuriant growth of subtropical broadleaved Schima wallichii and Castanopsis indica forests on the lower slopes, with Quercus lamellosa and Q. lanata mixed with Rhododendron arboreum and small bamboo patches higher up, and Quercus semecarpifolia and a little bamboo at the highest elevations. There is a marble quarry on the lower slopes.

Key Biodiversity The high total of 288 species has been recorded on Phulchoki (Inskipp 1989a, Inskipp 1993, Lama 1994, 1995, Baral 1995, Giri and Choudhary 1996, Choudhary 1996a, Giri and Choudhary 2000a, 2001a, 2004a, H. S. Baral pers. obs.). Phulchoki is important for the restricted-range species Spiny Babbler and Hoary-throated Barwing. There are large areas of broadleaved temperate forests that are known to support significant populations of characteristic species of the Sino-Himalayan Temperate Forest biome. Although partly degraded, Phulchoki’s broadleaved subtropical moist forests still hold good populations of characteristic species of the Sino-Himalayan Subtropical Forest biome.

Non-bird biodiversity: Phulchoki's forests are internationally renowned for their other wildlife. Martens (1979) stated that 'Numerous animal species, especially insects and Arachnida hitherto unknown to science have been discovered here in recent years'. Phulchoki supports a rich variety of butterflies, including the rare Golden Emperor Dilipa morgiana and Kaiser-I-Hind Teinopalpus imperialis (Limbu and Gurung 1998). Ghimre (1984-1985) advocated their protection for their botanical importance alone. Mainly smaller mammals occur, for example Indian Muntjac Muntiacus muntjak, Yellow-throated Marten Martes flavigula, Orange-bellied Squirrel Dremomys lokriah and the Leopard Panthera pardus, which is rare.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Hill Partridge Arborophila torqueola resident  1989  uncommon  A3  Least Concern 
Rufous-throated Partridge Arborophila rufogularis resident  1989  rare  A3  Least Concern 
Megalaima franklinii resident  1989  uncommon  A3  Not Recognised 
Megalaima asiatica resident  1989  uncommon  A3  Not Recognised 
Darjeeling Woodpecker Dendrocopos darjellensis resident  1989  uncommon  A3  Least Concern 
Bay Woodpecker Blythipicus pyrrhotis resident  1989  uncommon  A3  Least Concern 
Blue-naped Pitta Pitta nipalensis unknown  1989  rare  A3  Least Concern 
Black-winged Cuckooshrike Coracina melaschistos breeding  1989  uncommon  A3  Least Concern 
Maroon Oriole Oriolus traillii resident  1989  uncommon  A3  Least Concern 
Black-headed Jay Garrulus lanceolatus resident  1989  uncommon  A3  Least Concern 
Gold-billed Magpie Urocissa flavirostris resident  1989  rare  A3  Least Concern 
Grey Treepie Dendrocitta formosae resident  1989  frequent  A3  Least Concern 
Green-backed Tit Parus monticolus resident  1989  frequent  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-browed Tit Sylviparus modestus resident  1989  uncommon  A3  Least Concern 
Black-throated Tit Aegithalos concinnus resident  1989  common  A3  Least Concern 
Striated Prinia Prinia crinigera breeding  1989  uncommon  A3  Least Concern 
Striated Bulbul Pycnonotus striatus resident  1989  uncommon  A3  Least Concern 
Himalayan Bulbul Pycnonotus leucogenys resident  2004  common  A3  Least Concern 
White-throated Bulbul Alophoixus flaveolus unknown  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Mountain Bulbul Hypsipetes mcclellandii resident  1989  frequent  A3  Least Concern 
Asian Black Bulbul Hypsipetes leucocephalus resident  1989  common  A3  Least Concern 
Chestnut-headed Tesia Tesia castaneocoronata resident  1989  common  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-bellied Tesia Tesia cyaniventer resident  1989  uncommon  A3  Least Concern 
Buff-barred Warbler Phylloscopus pulcher resident  1989  common  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-hooded Warbler Phylloscopus xanthoschistos resident  1989  common  A3  Least Concern 
Black-faced Warbler Abroscopus schisticeps resident  1989  uncommon  A3  Least Concern 
White-throated Laughingthrush Garrulax albogularis resident  1989  common  A3  Least Concern 
Streaked Laughingthrush Garrulax lineatus resident  1989  uncommon  A3  Least Concern 
Himalayan Cutia Cutia nipalensis resident  1989  uncommon  A3  Least Concern 
Rusty-cheeked Scimitar-babbler Pomatorhinus erythrogenys resident  1989  frequent  A3  Least Concern 
Nepal Wren-babbler Pnoepyga immaculata passage  2004  rare  A2  Least Concern 
Black-chinned Babbler Stachyris pyrrhops resident  1989  frequent  A3  Least Concern 
Spiny Babbler Turdoides nipalensis resident  2004  frequent  A2  Least Concern 
Striated Laughingthrush Garrulax striatus resident  1989  frequent  A3  Least Concern 
Rufous-chinned Laughingthrush Garrulax rufogularis resident  1989  uncommon  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-sided Laughingthrush Garrulax caerulatus resident  1989  uncommon  A3  Least Concern 
Red-billed Leiothrix Leiothrix lutea resident  1989  uncommon  A3  Least Concern 
Green Shrike-babbler Pteruthius xanthochlorus resident  1989  uncommon  A3  Least Concern 
Rusty-fronted Barwing Actinodura egertoni unknown  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Hoary-throated Barwing Actinodura nipalensis resident  2004  frequent  A2  Least Concern 
Blue-winged Minla Minla cyanouroptera resident  1989  uncommon  A3  Least Concern 
Chestnut-tailed Minla Minla strigula resident  1989  frequent  A3  Least Concern 
Red-tailed Minla Minla ignotincta resident  1989  rare  A3  Least Concern 
White-browed Fulvetta Alcippe vinipectus resident  2004  common  A3  Least Concern 
Nepal Fulvetta Alcippe nipalensis resident  1989  frequent  A3  Least Concern 
Rufous Sibia Heterophasia capistrata resident  1989  common  A3  Least Concern 
Stripe-throated Yuhina Yuhina gularis resident  1989  common  A3  Least Concern 
White-tailed Nuthatch Sitta himalayensis resident  1989  common  A3  Least Concern 
Rusty-flanked Treecreeper Certhia nipalensis unknown  1989  uncommon  A3  Least Concern 
Tickell's Thrush Turdus unicolor breeding  1989  uncommon  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-winged Blackbird Turdus boulboul resident  1989  uncommon  A3  Least Concern 
Indian Blue Robin Luscinia brunnea unknown  1989  uncommon  A3  Least Concern 
White-tailed Robin Cinclidium leucurum breeding  1989  uncommon  A3  Least Concern 
Blue-fronted Robin Cinclidium frontale unknown  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Ultramarine Flycatcher Ficedula superciliaris breeding  1989  uncommon  A3  Least Concern 
Small Niltava Niltava macgrigoriae resident  1989  uncommon  A3  Least Concern 
Rufous-bellied Niltava Niltava sundara resident  1989  uncommon  A3  Least Concern 
Orange-bellied Leafbird Chloropsis hardwickii resident  1989  uncommon  A3  Least Concern 
Black-throated Sunbird Aethopyga saturata resident  1989  uncommon  A3  Least Concern 
Spectacled Finch Callacanthis burtoni passage  2004  rare  A2  Least Concern 
Brown Bullfinch Pyrrhula nipalensis resident  1989  uncommon  A3  Least Concern 

IBA Monitoring

2011 medium near favourable low
Habitat
Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data

Human intrusions and disturbance recreational activities happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Over-exploitation, persecution and control of species gathering terrestrial plants - unintentional effects (species being assessed is not the target) happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Transportation and service corridors roads and railroads happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low

Forest   0 0 good (> 90%) moderate (70-90%) near favourable

Little/none of site covered (<10%)  No management planning has taken place  Substantive conservation measures are being implemented but these are not comprehensive and are limited by resources and capacity  low 

Habitats

IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest   -
Artificial - terrestrial   -

References Dixit (1986), Inskipp (1989a), Inskipp and Inskipp (1989), Limbu and Gurung (1998).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Phulchoki Mountain forests. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/12/2014

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife