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Location Nepal, Koshi
Central coordinates 87o 0.00' East  27o 45.00' North
IBA criteria A1, A2, A3
Area 150,000 ha
Altitude 435 - 8,463m
Year of IBA assessment 2005

Bird Conservation Nepal (Partner Designate)



Site description Makalu Barun National Park lies in east Nepal bordering with Sagarmatha National Park in the west and the Arun river in the east. The core area covers 150,000ha and is surrounded by 83,000ha of buffer zone. The fifth highest mountain peak in the world, Makalu (8463 m) and the wild and comparatively uninhabited Barun valley lie in the park. Several large tributaries of the Arun River form important watersheds in the park. A wide range of vegetation is represented here in undisturbed form; even some of the steepest slopes of the mountain are vegetated. Sal forests reach their northern limit in Nepal along the banks of the Arun below 1000 m. Other forest types comprise subtropical broadleaved Castanopsis tribuloides, C. indica, C. hystrix, Schima wallichii, Alnus nepalensis; temperate Quercus lamellosa, Q. lineata, Acer campbellii, Magnolia campbellii and subalpine Abies spectabilis, Betula utilis, and shrubberies of Rhododendron spp. Vegetation in the alpine zone consists of herbs, grasses and shrubs of Rhododendron spp. (Shrestha 1989).

Key Biodiversity A total of 348 bird species has been recorded from the park and buffer zone (Cox 1999). The park is especially important for the globally threatened Wood Snipe which breeds, and the near-threatened Satyr Tragopan and Yellow-rumped Honeyguide which are resident and probably breed. It is also of special importance for the high number of seven restricted-range species from the Central and Eastern Himalayas EBAs that are probably resident: Yellow-vented Warbler, Broad-billed Warbler, Nepal Wren Babbler, Rufous-throated Wren Babbler, Spiny Babbler, Hoary-throated Barwing and White-naped Yuhina. There are large subtropical and temperate forest and alpine zone areas. These support significant populations of characteristic species of the Sino-Himalayan Subtropical Forest, Sino-Himalayan Temperate Forest and Eurasian High Montane biomes respectively.

Non-bird biodiversity: Globally threatened mammals reported to occur include the Asiatic Black Bear Ursus thibetanus, Himalayan Musk Deer Moschus chrysogaster and Red Panda Ailurus fulgens.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Snow Partridge Lerwa lerwa resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Tibetan Snowcock Tetraogallus tibetanus resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Hill Partridge Arborophila torqueola resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Blood Pheasant Ithaginis cruentus resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Satyr Tragopan Tragopan satyra resident  2004  uncommon  A1  Near Threatened 
Himalayan Monal Lophophorus impejanus resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Himalayan Griffon Gyps himalayensis resident  2004  present  A3  Near Threatened 
Eastern Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca passage  2004  rare  A1  Vulnerable 
Ibisbill Ibidorhyncha struthersii resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Solitary Snipe Gallinago solitaria winter  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Wood Snipe Gallinago nemoricola breeding  2004  uncommon  A1  Vulnerable 
Snow Pigeon Columba leuconota resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Speckled Woodpigeon Columba hodgsonii resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Slaty-headed Parakeet Psittacula himalayana resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Megalaima franklinii resident  2004  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Megalaima asiatica resident  1989  unknown  A3  Not Recognised 
Yellow-rumped Honeyguide Indicator xanthonotus resident  2004  uncommon  A1  Near Threatened 
Darjeeling Woodpecker Dendrocopos darjellensis resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Bay Woodpecker Blythipicus pyrrhotis resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Black-winged Cuckooshrike Coracina melaschistos resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Short-billed Minivet Pericrocotus brevirostris resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-backed Shrike Lanius tephronotus breeding  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Maroon Oriole Oriolus traillii resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Gold-billed Magpie Urocissa flavirostris resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Grey Treepie Dendrocitta formosae resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-billed Chough Pyrrhocorax graculus resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Rufous-vented Tit Parus rubidiventris resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-crested Tit Parus dichrous resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Green-backed Tit Parus monticolus resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-browed Tit Sylviparus modestus resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Nepal House-martin Delichon nipalense resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Black-throated Tit Aegithalos concinnus resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Black-browed Tit Aegithalos iouschistos resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Hume's Lark Calandrella acutirostris breeding  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Striated Prinia Prinia crinigera resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Striated Bulbul Pycnonotus striatus resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Himalayan Bulbul Pycnonotus leucogenys resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Mountain Bulbul Hypsipetes mcclellandii resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Asian Black Bulbul Hypsipetes leucocephalus resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Chestnut-headed Tesia Tesia castaneocoronata resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Slaty-bellied Tesia Tesia olivea resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-bellied Tesia Tesia cyaniventer unknown  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Aberrant Bush-warbler Cettia flavolivacea resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-sided Bush-warbler Cettia brunnifrons resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Smoky Warbler Phylloscopus fuligiventer resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Tickell's Leaf-warbler Phylloscopus affinis breeding  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Buff-barred Warbler Phylloscopus pulcher breeding  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Ashy-throated Warbler Phylloscopus maculipennis breeding  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Large-billed Leaf-warbler Phylloscopus magnirostris breeding  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-hooded Warbler Phylloscopus xanthoschistos resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-vented Warbler Phylloscopus cantator resident  2004  uncommon  A2  Least Concern 
Grey-cheeked Warbler Seicercus poliogenys resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Broad-billed Warbler Tickellia hodgsoni resident  2004  rare  A2  Least Concern 
Black-faced Warbler Abroscopus schisticeps resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
White-throated Laughingthrush Garrulax albogularis resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Streaked Laughingthrush Garrulax lineatus unknown  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Scaly-breasted Wren-babbler Pnoepyga albiventer unknown  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Rusty-cheeked Scimitar-babbler Pomatorhinus erythrogenys resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Slender-billed Scimitar-babbler Xiphirhynchus superciliaris resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Nepal Wren-babbler Pnoepyga immaculata resident  2004  frequent  A2  Least Concern 
Rufous-throated Wren-babbler Spelaeornis caudatus resident  2004  uncommon  A1, A2  Near Threatened 
Spotted Wren-babbler Spelaeornis formosus resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Rufous-capped Babbler Stachyris ruficeps resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Black-chinned Babbler Stachyris pyrrhops resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Spiny Babbler Turdoides nipalensis resident  2004  frequent  A2  Least Concern 
Striated Laughingthrush Garrulax striatus resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Spotted Laughingthrush Garrulax ocellatus resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-sided Laughingthrush Garrulax caerulatus resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Scaly Laughingthrush Garrulax subunicolor resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Black-faced Laughingthrush Garrulax affinis resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Red-billed Leiothrix Leiothrix lutea resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Black-headed Shrike-babbler Pteruthius rufiventer resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Green Shrike-babbler Pteruthius xanthochlorus resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Rusty-fronted Barwing Actinodura egertoni resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Hoary-throated Barwing Actinodura nipalensis resident  2004  frequent  A2  Least Concern 
Blue-winged Minla Minla cyanouroptera resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Chestnut-tailed Minla Minla strigula resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Red-tailed Minla Minla ignotincta resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Golden-breasted Fulvetta Alcippe chrysotis resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-browed Fulvetta Alcippe vinipectus resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Nepal Fulvetta Alcippe nipalensis resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Rufous Sibia Heterophasia capistrata resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
White-naped Yuhina Yuhina bakeri resident  2004  rare  A2  Least Concern 
Stripe-throated Yuhina Yuhina gularis resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Rufous-vented Yuhina Yuhina occipitalis resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Black-chinned Yuhina Yuhina nigrimenta resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Great Parrotbill Conostoma oemodium resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Brown Parrotbill Paradoxornis unicolor resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Fulvous Parrotbill Paradoxornis fulvifrons resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Fire-tailed Myzornis Myzornis pyrrhoura resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
White-tailed Nuthatch Sitta himalayensis resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Wallcreeper Tichodroma muraria resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Rusty-flanked Treecreeper Certhia nipalensis resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Long-billed Thrush Zoothera monticola resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Tickell's Thrush Turdus unicolor breeding  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
White-collared Blackbird Turdus albocinctus resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-winged Blackbird Turdus boulboul resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Purple Cochoa Cochoa purpurea resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Gould's Shortwing Brachypteryx stellata resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-tailed Rubythroat Luscinia pectoralis resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Indian Blue Robin Luscinia brunnea breeding  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Golden Bush-robin Tarsiger chrysaeus resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
White-browed Bush-robin Tarsiger indicus resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Rufous-breasted Bush-robin Tarsiger hyperythrus resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Blue-capped Redstart Phoenicurus caeruleocephala breeding  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Hodgson's Redstart Phoenicurus hodgsoni breeding  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-throated Redstart Phoenicurus schisticeps resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-winged Redstart Phoenicurus erythrogastrus resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-bellied Redstart Hodgsonius phaenicuroides resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-tailed Robin Cinclidium leucurum resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grandala Grandala coelicolor resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Slaty-backed Forktail Enicurus schistaceus resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Blue-capped Rock-thrush Monticola cinclorhynchus breeding  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Ferruginous Flycatcher Muscicapa ferruginea breeding  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Slaty-backed Flycatcher Ficedula hodgsonii resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Rufous-gorgeted Flycatcher Ficedula strophiata resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
White-gorgeted Flycatcher Ficedula monileger resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Ultramarine Flycatcher Ficedula superciliaris breeding  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Slaty-blue Flycatcher Ficedula tricolor breeding  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Sapphire Flycatcher Ficedula sapphira resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Small Niltava Niltava macgrigoriae resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Rufous-bellied Niltava Niltava sundara resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Orange-bellied Leafbird Chloropsis hardwickii resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-bellied Flowerpecker Dicaeum melanoxanthum resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Black-throated Sunbird Aethopyga saturata resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Fire-tailed Sunbird Aethopyga ignicauda resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Black-winged Snowfinch Montifringilla adamsi resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Alpine Accentor Prunella collaris resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Rufous-streaked Accentor Prunella himalayana winter  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Robin Accentor Prunella rubeculoides resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Rufous-breasted Accentor Prunella strophiata resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Maroon-backed Accentor Prunella immaculata resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Rosy Pipit Anthus roseatus resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Tibetan Serin Serinus thibetanus winter  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-breasted Greenfinch Carduelis spinoides breeding  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Plain Mountain-finch Leucosticte nemoricola resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Black-headed Mountain-finch Leucosticte brandti resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Dark-breasted Rosefinch Carpodacus nipalensis resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Beautiful Rosefinch Carpodacus pulcherrimus resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Pink-browed Rosefinch Carpodacus rodochroa resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Spot-winged Rosefinch Carpodacus rodopeplus breeding  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
White-browed Rosefinch Carpodacus thura resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Streaked Rosefinch Carpodacus rubicilloides resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Great Rosefinch Carpodacus rubicilla resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-fronted Rosefinch Carpodacus puniceus resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Crimson-browed Finch Pinicola subhimachala resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Scarlet Finch Haematospiza sipahi resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Brown Bullfinch Pyrrhula nipalensis resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Red-headed Bullfinch Pyrrhula erythrocephala resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Collared Grosbeak Mycerobas affinis resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Spot-winged Grosbeak Mycerobas melanozanthos resident  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-winged Grosbeak Mycerobas carnipes resident  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Gold-naped Finch Pyrrhoplectes epauletta breeding  1989  unknown  A3  Least Concern 

IBA Monitoring

2011 high very unfavourable medium
Habitat
Medium - based upon reliable but incomplete / partially representative data

Agriculture and aquaculture annual & perennial non-timber crops - shifting agriculture happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Agriculture and aquaculture annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Agriculture and aquaculture livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Biological resource use gathering terrestrial plants - unintentional effects (species being assessed is not the target) happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Biological resource use logging & wood harvesting - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Human intrusions and disturbance recreational activities happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Invasive & other problematic species, genes & diseases invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - unspecified species happening now some of area/population (10-49%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Natural system modifications fire & fire suppression - increase in fire frequency/intensity happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Residential and commercial development tourism and recreation areas happening now some of area/population (10-49%) no or imperceptible deterioration low

Forest   0 0 good (> 90%) good (> 90%) favourable
Grassland   0 0 moderate (70-90%) poor (40-69%) very unfavourable

Whole area of site (>90%) covered by appropriate conservation designation  A management plan exists but it is out of date or not comprehensive  Some limited conservation initiatives are in place  medium 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Makalu-Barun National Park 15,000 is identical to site 150,000  
Makalu-Barun Conservation Area National Park - Buffer Zone 83,000 protected area is adjacent to site 0  
Sagarmatha National Park 114,800 protected area is adjacent to site 0  
Sagarmatha National Park World Heritage Site 114,800 protected area is adjacent to site 0  

Habitats

IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Artificial - terrestrial   -
Forest   -
Grassland   -

References Inskipp (1989a), Shrestha (1989), Cox (1999).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Makalu Barun National Park. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/09/2016

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife