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Location Nepal, Lumbini
Central coordinates 83o 17.00' East  27o 29.00' North
IBA criteria A1, A3, A4i
Area 141,367 ha
Altitude 95 - 1,219m
Year of IBA assessment 2005

Bird Conservation Nepal (Partner Designate)



Site description The farmlands of Rupandehi and Kapilvastu districts encompass a large rural area where agriculture is the main land use (68%) followed by forests which cover 21.6% of the area. There are plains in the south and dry bhabar and Churia Hills to the north. A number of perennial and seasonal rivers and streams including the Telar, Tinau, Sundi and Dano river systems flow through the area. The forest, scrub, wetlands and grasslands surrounding Lumbini (the birthplace of Lord Buddha) are an especially important refuge for wildlife.

Key Biodiversity This area has the best known population of the globally threatened Sarus Crane in Nepal and is the only known site in the country where the species breeds regularly. The resident and migrant populations of Sarus and their breeding are regularly monitored (e.g. Suwal 2002). In 2000 a biodiversity assessment found 210 bird species in Rupandehi district. A total of eight globally threatened birds have been recorded here including White-rumped Vulture and Indian Spotted Eagle Aquila hastata that both breed, and also Slender-billed Vulture, Cinereous Vulture and Lesser Adjutant that are all seen regularly (Suwal 2002). The Telar and Dano floodplains are recognised as important habitats for birdlife (Bhandari 1998). There are areas of tropical dry forests that are known to support significant populations of characteristic species of the Indo-Malayan Tropical Dry Zone biome.

Non-bird biodiversity: Mammal species include the globally threatened Nilgai Boselaphus tragocamelus (which was introduced here), Smooth-coated Otter Lutrogale perspicallata and Striped Hyaena Hyaena hyaena. Other mammals include Golden Jackal Canis aureus, Bengal Fox Vulpes bengalensis, Yellow-throated Marten Martes flavigula, Chital Axis axis, Indian muntjac Muntiacus muntjak and Leopard Panthera pardus. There is a plan to reintroduce the globally threatened Blackbuck Antilope cervicapra.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Lineated Barbet Psilopogon lineatus unknown  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Indian Peafowl Pavo cristatus unknown  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus unknown  2004  frequent  A1, A4i  Vulnerable 
Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala non-breeding  2004  rare  A1  Near Threatened 
Black-headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus non-breeding  2004  rare  A1  Near Threatened 
Red-naped Ibis Pseudibis papillosa unknown  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-headed Vulture Sarcogyps calvus unknown  2004  present  A3  Critically Endangered 
Pallas's Fish-eagle Haliaeetus leucoryphus passage  2004  unknown  A1  Vulnerable 
White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis resident  2004  uncommon  A1, A3  Critically Endangered 
Slender-billed Vulture Gyps tenuirostris resident  2004  uncommon  A1, A3  Critically Endangered 
Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus passage  2004  rare  A1  Near Threatened 
Indian Spotted Eagle Clanga hastata resident  2004  rare  A1  Vulnerable 
White-eyed Buzzard Butastur teesa unknown  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Sarus Crane Antigone antigone resident  2004  common  A1, A4i  Vulnerable 
Yellow-footed Green-pigeon Treron phoenicopterus unknown  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Plum-headed Parakeet Psittacula cyanocephala unknown  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Indian Grey Hornbill Ocyceros birostris unknown  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Dinopium benghalense unknown  2004  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Yellow-crowned Woodpecker Leiopicus mahrattensis unknown  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Common Woodshrike Tephrodornis pondicerianus unknown  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Small Minivet Pericrocotus cinnamomeus unknown  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-bellied Drongo Dicrurus caerulescens unknown  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-browed Fantail Rhipidura aureola unknown  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Rufous-winged Lark Mirafra assamica unknown  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Indian Short-toed Lark Calandrella raytal unknown  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Ashy-crowned Sparrow-lark Eremopterix griseus unknown  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Bristled Grassbird Chaetornis striata breeding  2004  rare  A1  Vulnerable 
Large Grey Babbler Turdoides malcolmi unknown  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Jungle Babbler Turdoides striata unknown  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Bank Myna Acridotheres ginginianus unknown  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Chestnut-tailed Starling Sturnus malabaricus unknown  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Brahminy Starling Sturnus pagodarum unknown  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
Indian Robin Saxicoloides fulicatus unknown  2004  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-throated Bushchat Saxicola insignis passage  2004  rare  A1  Vulnerable 
Yellow-breasted Bunting Emberiza aureola winter  2004  unknown  A1  Endangered 

IBA Monitoring

2011 high near favourable low
Population
Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data

Energy production and mining mining and quarrying happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Human intrusions and disturbance recreational activities happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Invasive and other problematic species and genes invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - unspecified species happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Over-exploitation, persecution and control of species gathering terrestrial plants - unintentional effects (species being assessed is not the target) happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Over-exploitation, persecution and control of species hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target) happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Residential and commercial development commercial and industrial development happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high

Other   0 0 poor (40-69%) moderate (70-90%) very unfavourable

Antigone antigone Sarus Crane 603 503 individuals 84 near favourable

Little/none of site covered (<10%)  No management planning has taken place  Substantive conservation measures are being implemented but these are not comprehensive and are limited by resources and capacity  low 

Habitats

IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Other   major
Artificial - terrestrial   -
Wetlands (inland)   -

References Suwal and Shrestha (1988, 1992), Shrestha (1995, 1996), Bhandari (1998), Shrestha (1999), Suwal (1999a,b, 2002), Baral (2002), Inskipp (2004).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Farmlands in Lumbini area. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/12/2014

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife