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Location Canada, Prince Edward Island
Central coordinates 63o 44.97' West  46o 30.06' North
IBA criteria A4iii
Area 57,000 ha
Altitude 0 - 40m
Year of IBA assessment 2008

Bird Studies Canada/Nature Canada

Site description Malpeque Bay is located along the north (Gulf of St. Lawrence) shore of west-central P.E.I. It is comprised of a large shallow bay (average depth 4 m, maximum 13 m) that is enclosed by a 25 km long coastal sandspit and dune system on the seaward side. Tidal marshes and inlets are located along the landward side of the bay. The coastline within the bay is characterized by a zone of intertidal mud that varies in width up to a maximum of 1 km. Within the bay, there are nine islands, five of which are forested with the other four being characterized by grasses and shrubs. The adjacent lands are used primarily for agricultural purposes (especially potatoes and oats) with a small area of urban/industrial use along the southwest side.

Key Biodiversity At least three Piping Plover beaches occur along the Malpeque Bay sandspit and barrier-dune chain: Conway Sandhills, Hog Island, and Darnley Point. In 1991, 22 Piping Plovers were recorded on these beaches (4.3% of the estimated Atlantic Canada population). In subsequent years numbers have been lower, with only 8 Piping Plovers being recorded in 1996 (1.9% of the estimated Atlantic Canada population). Piping Plovers are identified as a globally vulnerable, and nationally endangered species.

In addition to threatened species, large numbers of waterbirds utilize Malpeque Bay. Two colonies of Double-crested Cormorants occur within the bay: one on Little Courtin Island, and the other on Ram Island. The Ram Island colony is one of the largest in North America. Interchange occurs between the two islands with the entire population being present on Little Courtin Island in 1996, and relatively equal numbers being present on both islands in 1997 and 1998. Over the last 15 years, however, there have consistently been larger populations nesting on Ram Island than on Little Courtin Island. The combined long-term average (1986-98) for the two Double-crested Cormorant colonies is 4,044 nests. In recent years, numbers have increased slightly with a 1994-98 average of 4,645 nests. This population estimate represents about 2% of the estimated Canadian population, and over 1% of the estimated North American population.

Large numbers of Canada Geese from the Newfoundland and Labrador population also make use of Malpeque Bay during both the spring and fall migration. Over the past six years (1992-97) one-day counts completed in mid-November have recorded an average of 3,328 geese (as much as 3% of the estimated Newfoundland and Labrador population). The actual percentage of the population using the site, however, is likely much larger since the turnover of migrants also needs to be considered. Some estimates of the peak numbers of Canada Geese have ranged as high as 14,000 in the spring and 20,000 in the fall (about 15 to 20% of the estimated population. Other waterfowl species that congregate in the bay include: Red-breasted Merganser, Greater Scaup, American Black Duck, and Green-winged Teal. Additionally, numerous shorebirds use the area in fall migration. In particular, Greater Yellowlegs, Willet, Whimbrel and Red Knot are occasionally found in large numbers.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
A4iii Species group - waterbirds passage  1995  20,000-49,999 individuals  unknown  A4iii   

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Malpeque Bay Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar) 24,440 protected area contained by site 20,000  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Wetlands (inland) Estuarine waters; Intertidal mud, sand or salt flats; Salt/brackish marshes; Sand dunes and beaches  -
Sea Sea inlets  50%
Artificial - terrestrial Arable land  -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
agriculture minor
nature conservation and research minor
fisheries/aquaculture major
hunting minor

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Malpeque Bay. Downloaded from on 27/10/2016

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