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Location Canada, Ontario
Central coordinates 77o 43.01' West  44o 0.09' North
IBA criteria A4i, A4iii
Area 3,000 ha
Altitude 247 - 250m
Year of IBA assessment 2008

Bird Studies Canada/Nature Canada

Site description Presqu'ile Provincial Park is located on the north shore of Lake Ontario, approximately 135 km east of Toronto. It is a boot-shaped peninsula that juts 10 km out into Lake Ontario. The outer section of the peninsula is formed from a limestone island, with the isthmus to the mainland being formed from sand. Two offshore islands, Gull and High Bluff are located immediately to the southwest of the peninsula, and an extensive cattail and open water marsh is located in the lee of the peninsula. The park is about 937 ha in area, with 427 ha being water and 510 ha being land. Within this area, diverse habitats are present including large marshes, sand dunes, wide sandy beaches, old fields, a variety of forest types and productive lake areas.

Key Biodiversity Presqu'ile Provincial Park is well known for its bird life. During the spring and fall, large numbers of migrants move through the area, and during the late spring and summer a diverse community of breeding birds is present. In all, a total of 318 bird species have been confirmed within the park, with over 130 species being recorded as breeders (among the highest totals for any area in Ontario).

From an Important Bird Area perspective, at least two species are regularly present during spring migration in globally significant numbers (i.e., greater than 1% of their biogeographical population): Greater Scaup and Whimbrel. In addition, the park supports globally significant breeding populations of two additional species: Ring-billed Gull (possibly 7% of the North American population) and Caspian Tern (about 3% of the North American population). Continentally significant numbers of Atlantic Brant and Dunlin are regularly seen. Nesting Double-crested Cormorants are also present in globally significant numbers. Great Egrets began nesting in the park in 1999, and at least three pairs were present in 2000. Nesting King Rails (nationally endangered) and Least Bitterns (nationally vulnerable) have also been recorded in the park, but detailed surveys to establish their regularity (in the case of King Rail) and estimate their numbers (in the case of Least Bittern) have not been completed. Numbers of Least Bitterns, however, are likely close to being nationally significant. Historically, large numbers of Black Terns have also nested in the marsh, but in recent years their numbers have declined.

Presqu'ile is also an important stopover site for migrating landbirds. The species richness is comparable to other landbird concentration sites on the lower Great Lakes. In the past, up to 60,000 swallows regularly roosted in the park in late summer, although more recently numbers have been in the order of 7,000. Large flocks of blackbirds, and occasionally winter finches, have also been reported.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Greater Scaup Aythya marila passage  1995  10,500 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus breeding  2000  8,500 nests  A4i  Least Concern 
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus passage  1985  1,000 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Ring-billed Gull Larus delawarensis breeding  1990  69,417 breeding pairs  A4i  Least Concern 
Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia breeding  2000  1,200 nests  A4i  Least Concern 
A4iii Species group - waterbirds breeding  1990  50,000-99,999 breeding pairs  unknown  A4iii   

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Presqu'ile Provincial Park 937 protected area overlaps with site 740  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest Temperate mixed woods  -
Wetlands (inland) Freshwater marshes/swamps; Intertidal mud, sand or salt flats  -
Coastline Cliffs, rocky shores, islets, freshwater  -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
hunting minor
tourism/recreation major

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Presqu'ile Provincial Park. Downloaded from on 27/10/2016

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