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Location Greece, Ipiros,Western Greece
Central coordinates 21o 0.00' East  39o 0.00' North
IBA criteria A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6
Area 25,000 ha
Altitude 0 - 450m
Year of IBA assessment 2000

Hellenic Ornithological Society

Site description The northern section of the site is formed by the deltas of the Louros and Arachtos rivers. It consists of brackish lagoons, a sandy coastal strip, saltmarsh, reedbeds (Phragmites), wet meadows, mudflats and remnant patches of alluvial forest. The lagoons are all used as fisheries.

Key Biodiversity This is an important site for wintering ducks and geese, breeding, passage and wintering raptors and migratory waders. Species of global conservation concern that do not meet IBA criteria: Phalacrocorax pygmeus (wintering), Haliaeetus albicilla (wintering), Aquila heliaca (non-breeding), Falco naumanni (passage), Gallinago media (passage).

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Northern Pintail Anas acuta winter  1996  8,000-15,000 individuals  A4i, B1i, C3  Least Concern 
Eurasian Wigeon Mareca penelope winter  1996  20,000-50,000 individuals  A4i, B1i, C3  Least Concern 
Northern Shoveler Spatula clypeata winter  1996  7,000-26,000 individuals  A4i, B1i, C3  Least Concern 
Common Teal Anas crecca winter  1996  8,000-30,000 individuals  A4i, B1i, C3  Least Concern 
Common Pochard Aythya ferina winter  1996  5,000-22,000 individuals  A4i, B1i, C3  Vulnerable 
Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca breeding  1996  25-100 breeding pairs  A1, B2, C1, C6  Near Threatened 
Black-necked Grebe Podiceps nigricollis winter  1996  900-2,200 individuals  A4i, B1i, C3  Least Concern 
White Stork Ciconia ciconia breeding  1996  70-80 breeding pairs  C6  Least Concern 
Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus passage  1996  400-1,200 individuals  A4i, B1i, C2  Least Concern 
Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia breeding  1996  6-10 breeding pairs  B2, C6  Least Concern 
Ixobrychus minutus breeding  1996  30-60 breeding pairs  C2, C6  Not Recognised 
Black-crowned Night-heron Nycticorax nycticorax breeding  1996  50-100 breeding pairs  B2, C6  Least Concern 
Squacco Heron Ardeola ralloides breeding  1996  80-150 breeding pairs  A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C6  Least Concern 
Great White Egret Ardea alba breeding  1996  130-200 breeding pairs  A4i, B1i, C2  Least Concern 
Egretta garzetta passage  1996  800-1,500 individuals  A4i, B1i, C2  Not Recognised 
Dalmatian Pelican Pelecanus crispus resident  1996  45-50 breeding pairs  A1, A4i, B1i, B2, C1, C2, C6  Vulnerable 
Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo winter  1996  1,200-1,800 individuals  B1i, C3  Least Concern 
Greater Spotted Eagle Clanga clanga winter  1996  3-4 individuals  A1, C1  Vulnerable 
Common Coot Fulica atra winter  1996  20,000-47,000 individuals  A4i, B1i, C3  Least Concern 
Burhinus oedicnemus breeding  1996  8-30 breeding pairs  B2, C6  Not Recognised 
Haematopus ostralegus breeding  1996  8-12 breeding pairs  B1i, C3  Not Recognised 
Himantopus himantopus breeding  1996  220-360 breeding pairs  A4i, B1i, C2  Not Recognised 
Charadrius alexandrinus winter  1996  600-2,500 individuals  A4i, B1i, C3  Not Recognised 
Charadrius alexandrinus resident  1996  300-400 breeding pairs  A4i, B1i, B2, C3  Not Recognised 
Common Redshank Tringa totanus winter  1996  800-2,300 individuals  B1i, C3  Least Concern 
Slender-billed Curlew Numenius tenuirostris passage  rare  A1, C1  Critically Endangered 
Little Stint Calidris minuta passage  1996  3,000-8,000 individuals  A4i, B1i, C3  Least Concern 
Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea passage  1996  2,000-6,000 individuals  A4i, B1i, C3  Near Threatened 
Collared Pratincole Glareola pratincola breeding  1996  100-160 breeding pairs  A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C6  Least Concern 
Sterna nilotica breeding  1996  80-120 breeding pairs  A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C6  Not Recognised 
Sandwich Tern Thalasseus sandvicensis resident  1996  45-90 breeding pairs  C2  Least Concern 
Little Tern Sternula albifrons breeding  1996  400-550 breeding pairs  A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C6  Least Concern 
Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida breeding  1997  5-6 breeding pairs  good  B2, C6  Least Concern 
Greater Short-toed Lark Calandrella brachydactyla breeding  1996  abundant  B2, C6  Least Concern 
A4iii Species group - waterbirds winter  1996  100,000-499,999 individuals  unknown  A4iii, C4   

IBA Monitoring

2013 very high not assessed low

Agriculture and aquaculture livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - agro-industry grazing, ranching or farmin happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Biological resource use hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target) happening now whole area/population (>90%) very rapid to severe deterioration very high
Pollution agricultural & forestry effluents - type unknown/unrecorded happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium

Whole area of site (>90%) covered by appropriate conservation designation  No management plan exists but the management planning process has begun  Some limited conservation initiatives are in place  low 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Amvrakikos National Park 181,033 protected area contains site 26,275  
Amvrakikos gulf Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar) 23,649 protected area overlaps with site 22,626  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Shrubland Sclerophyllous scrub, garrigue and maquis  5%
Grassland Humid grasslands  5%
Wetlands (inland) Fens, transition mires and springs; Rivers and streams; Standing brackish and salt water; Standing freshwater; Water fringe vegetation  -
Sea Sea inlets and coastal features  5%
Artificial - terrestrial Arable land; Other urban and industrial areas; Perennial crops, orchards and groves  20%
Coastline Lagoons; Salt marshes; Sand dunes & beaches  -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
agriculture 25%
fisheries/aquaculture 70%
nature conservation and research -
tourism/recreation 5%
urban/industrial/transport 5%
water management 70%

Protection status National Partial International Partial10,500 ha of IBA covered by Wildlife Refuge (Limnothalassa Tsoukalio kai Valtos Rodias, 10,500 ha). 23,649 ha of IBA covered by Ramsar Site (Amvrakikos Gulf, 23,649 ha). 20,900 ha of IBA covered by Special Protection Area (Amvrakikos Kolpos, 21,239 ha).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Amvrakikos gulf. Downloaded from on 27/10/2016

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife