|Altitude||0 - 1,300m|
The Juan Fernndez archipelago comprises three principal islands of volcanic origin, located some 680-800 km west of continental Chile, to which it belongs politically. Isla Robinson Crusoe (or Ms Tierra, 93km,2) and Isla Alejandro Selkirk (Ms Fuera, 85km<+>) are the two islands with endemic birds (and therefore constitute this EBA), with none occurring on the third main island, Santa Clara. Land rises to 915 m at the dormant El Yunque on Robinson Crusoe and to 1,380 m at Los Inocentes on Alejandro Selkirk.
The climate is temperate and the islands were originally covered with forests of diverse origin. There are nearly 100 species of endemic flowering plant, including a monotypic family (the Lactor
Sephanoides fernandensis is a bird of forest on both Robinson Crusoe (nominate race) and Alejandro Selkirk (race leyboldi), but is believed extinct on the latter island where it has not been recorded since 1908 (Brooke 1987, Meza 1989). Aphrastura masa
Two species of seabird, Juan Fernndez Petrel Pterodroma externa and Stejneger's Petrel P. longirostris, are endemic breeders to Isla Alejandro Selkirk.
|Juan Fernandez Firecrown (Sephanoides fernandensis)||CR|
|Juan Fernandez Tit-tyrant (Anairetes fernandezianus)||NT|
|Masafuera Rayadito (Aphrastura masafuerae)||CR|
|IBA Code||Site Name||Country|
|Isla Alejandro Selkirk (Parque Nacional Archipiélago de Juan Fernández, Isla Alejandro Selkirk IBA)||Chile|
|Parque Nacional Archipiélago de Juan Fernández: Islas Robinson Crusoe and Santa Clara||Chile|
Threats and conservation
The flora and fauna of the Juan Fernndez Islands have declined drastically owing to the effects of two waves of introduced animals: goats, rats, cats and dogs introduced by the first colonists in the 1600s (though the dogs died out in the early 1800s), and then cattle, sheep, rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus and coatis Nasua nasua introduced in the 1800s. The native flora has also been displaced by introduced plants, especially the shrub Aristotelia chilensis, bram
Much of the native forest has been cleared below an altitude of 500m on both islands, and on Robinson Crusoe introduced species such as bramble provide the only vegetation cover. It is estimated that only 10% (5km2) of the island is covered with natural vegetation and c.46% has suffered erosion (Hulm 1995).
Sephanoides fernandensis and Aphrastura masa
The islands are very important for seabirds (see 'Restricted-range species', above), with six species breeding, including the threatened Defilippe's Petrel Pterodroma defilippiana and Pink-footed Shearwater Puffinus creatopus (both classified as).
The entire archipelago, except San Juan Bautista village on Isla Robinson Crusoe, was designated a national park in 1935, and then a Biosphere Reserve in 1977. The Chilean government proposed a US$2.5 million restoration programme in 1995, and the islands have been nominated for World Heritage listing (Hulm 1995).
Recommended citation BirdLife International (2013) Endemic Bird Area factsheet: Juan Fernández Islands. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/05/2013
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