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Tumbesian region
Country/Territory Ecuador,Peru
Area 130,000 
Altitude 0 - 3,000m  
Priority critical 
Habitat loss severe 
Knowledge good 

General characteristics 

This EBA lies in west Ecuador and north-west Peru, an area often called the Tumbesian centre (after Tumbes department of Peru). It primarily is centred on El Oro and Azuay provinces in south-west Ecuador, and Tumbes and Piura departments in north-west Peru, but it extends in patches northwards along the coast of Ecuador in Guayas, Los R

Restricted-range species 

The result of such a diversity of vegetation types is a specialized and distinctive endemic avifauna, which can broadly be split into five groups depending on their preferred habitat types. The EBA is characterized by species dependent on deciduous forest (including Acacia thorn-forest and Ceiba trichistandra-dominated forest, up to 1,400

Species IUCN Category
Pale-browed Tinamou (Crypturellus transfasciatus)  NT 
White-winged Guan (Penelope albipennis)  CR 
Rufous-headed Chachalaca (Ortalis erythroptera)  VU 
Grey-backed Hawk (Pseudastur occidentalis)  EN 
Ecuadorian Ground-dove (Columbina buckleyi)  LC 
Ochre-bellied Dove (Leptotila ochraceiventris)  VU 
Grey-cheeked Parakeet (Brotogeris pyrrhoptera)  EN 
Red-masked Parakeet (Psittacara erythrogenys)  NT 
El Oro Parakeet (Pyrrhura orcesi)  EN 
Pacific Parrotlet (Forpus coelestis)  LC 
Scrub Nightjar (Nyctidromus anthonyi)  LC 
Esmeraldas Woodstar (Chaetocercus berlepschi)  EN 
Tumbes Hummingbird (Leucippus baeri)  LC 
Short-tailed Woodstar (Myrmia micrura)  LC 
Ecuadorian Piculet (Picumnus sclateri)  LC 
Slaty Becard (Pachyramphus spodiurus)  EN 
Peruvian Plantcutter (Phytotoma raimondii)  EN 
Pacific Elaenia (Myiopagis subplacens)  LC 
Grey-and-white Tyrannulet (Pseudelaenia leucospodia)  LC 
Pacific Royal Flycatcher (Onychorhynchus occidentalis)  VU 
Grey-breasted Flycatcher (Lathrotriccus griseipectus)  VU 
Tumbes Tyrant (Tumbezia salvini)  NT 
Piura Chat-tyrant (Ochthoeca piurae)  NT 
Baird's Flycatcher (Myiodynastes bairdii)  LC 
Rufous Flycatcher (Myiarchus semirufus)  EN 
Sooty-crowned Flycatcher (Myiarchus phaeocephalus)  LC 
Collared Antshrike (Sakesphorus bernardi)  LC 
Chapman's Antshrike (Thamnophilus zarumae)  LC 
Grey-headed Antbird (Myrmeciza griseiceps)  VU 
Elegant Crescentchest (Melanopareia elegans)  LC 
Watkins's Antpitta (Grallaria watkinsi)  NT 
Coastal Miner (Geositta peruviana)  LC 
Surf Cinclodes (Cinclodes taczanowskii)  LC 
Blackish-headed Spinetail (Synallaxis tithys)  EN 
Necklaced Spinetail (Synallaxis stictothorax)  LC 
Rufous-necked Foliage-gleaner (Syndactyla ruficollis)  VU 
Henna-hooded Foliage-gleaner (Hylocryptus erythrocephalus)  VU 
White-tailed Jay (Cyanocorax mystacalis)  LC 
Superciliated Wren (Thryothorus superciliaris)  LC 
Plumbeous-backed Thrush (Turdus reevei)  LC 
Ecuadorian Thrush (Turdus maculirostris)  LC 
Saffron Siskin (Carduelis siemiradzkii)  VU 
Grey-and-gold Warbler (Basileuterus fraseri)  LC 
Three-banded Warbler (Basileuterus trifasciatus)  LC 
White-edged Oriole (Icterus graceannae)  LC 
Sulphur-throated Finch (Sicalis taczanowskii)  LC 
Tumbes Sparrow (Rhynchospiza stolzmanni)  LC 
Cinereous Finch (Piezorhina cinerea)  LC 
Drab Seedeater (Sporophila simplex)  LC 
Black-capped Sparrow (Arremon abeillei)  LC 
Bay-crowned Brush-finch (Atlapetes seebohmi)  LC 
White-headed Brush-finch (Atlapetes albiceps)  LC 
Pale-headed Brush-finch (Atlapetes pallidiceps)  EN 
Crimson-breasted Finch (Rhodospingus cruentus)  LC 
Black-cowled Saltator (Saltator nigriceps)  LC 

Important Bird Areas (IBAs)

IBA Code Site Name Country
  Bajo Utcubamba  Peru 
  Bosque Alexander von Humboldt  Peru 
  Cabeceras de Bilsa  Ecuador 
  Cerro Achi  Ecuador 
  Cerro Alto  Ecuador 
  Cordillera de Huancabamba  Peru 
  Corral Quemado  Peru 
  Cruz Blanca  Peru 
  Franco  Peru 
  Hacienda Buena Vista  Peru 
  Hacienda Pacaritambo  Ecuador 
  Hacienda Tinalandia  Ecuador 
  Jaen  Peru 
  Laguna de la Ciudad  Ecuador 
  Lobitos  Peru 
  Lomos de Atocongo  Peru 
  Macará-Sozoranga-Utuana  Ecuador 
  Noria  Peru 
  Paucal  Peru 
  Playa Rica-Palmitopamba  Ecuador 
  Reque  Peru 
  Reserva Natural y Hacienda la Hesperia  Ecuador 
  Reserva Paraíso de Papagayos  Ecuador 
  Río Ayampe-Cantalapiedra  Ecuador 
  Río Chico  Ecuador 
  Sechura  Peru 
  Seques  Peru 
  Sur de la Cordillera de Colán  Peru 
  Taulis  Peru 
  Tonsupa-Same  Ecuador 
  UNIDA A ALTO MAYO - La Morada  Peru 
  UNIDA A CUYAS - Cerro Chacas  Peru 
  UNIDA A OLMOS - El Tocto  Peru 
  UNIDA A OLMOS - Hacienda Boca Chica  Peru 
  UNIDA A OLMOS - Hacienda Recali  Peru 
  UNIDA A OLMOS - Kilometro 21 Carretera Olmos-Choloque  Peru 
  UNIDA A OLMOS - Quebrada Frejolillo  Peru 
  UNIDA A OLMOS - Quebrada Limón  Peru 
  UNIDA A ZR DE TUMBES - Cabo Inga  Peru 
  UNIDA A ZR DE TUMBES - Los Naranjos  Peru 
  UNIDA A ZR TUMBES- Zona Reservada de Tumbes  Peru 
  Valle de Tandayapa  Ecuador 
  Yapatera  Peru 
  Zona Reservada de Tumbes  Peru 
EC009  Bosque Protector Cerro Pata de Pájaro  Ecuador 
EC010  Hacienda Camarones  Ecuador 
EC011  Reserva Biológica Tito Santos  Ecuador 
EC012  Centro Científico Río Palenque  Ecuador 
EC015  Cordillera El Bálsamo  Ecuador 
EC016  Isla de la Plata  Ecuador 
EC017  Parque Nacional Machalilla y alrededores  Ecuador 
EC018  Reserva Ecológica Comunal Loma Alta  Ecuador 
EC020  Lagunas de Ecuasal-Salinas  Ecuador 
EC021  Represa Velasco Ibarra  Ecuador 
EC022  Engunga  Ecuador 
EC023  Estación Científica Pedro Franco Dávila  Ecuador 
EC024  Abras de Mantequilla  Ecuador 
EC025  Bosque Protector Chongón-Colonche  Ecuador 
EC026  Bosque Protector Cerro Blanco  Ecuador 
EC027  Isla Santay  Ecuador 
EC029  Reserva Ecológica Manglares-Churute  Ecuador 
EC032  Bosque Protector Molleturo Mullopungo  Ecuador 
EC035  Reserva Ecológica Arenillas  Ecuador 
EC060  Tiquibuzo  Ecuador 
EC067  Yunguilla Reserve (Reserva Yunguilla)  Ecuador 
EC071  Reserva Buenaventura  Ecuador 
EC072  Catacocha  Ecuador 
EC073  Bosque Protector Puyango  Ecuador 
EC074  La Tagua  Ecuador 
EC075  Alamor-Celica  Ecuador 
EC076  Cañón del río Catamayo  Ecuador 
EC077  Bosque Protector Jatumpamba-Jorupe  Ecuador 
EC078  Tambo Negro  Ecuador 
EC079  Utuana-Bosque de Hanne  Ecuador 
EC080  Cazaderos-Mangaurquillo  Ecuador 
EC081  Reserva Natural Tumbesia-La Ceiba-Zapotillo  Ecuador 
PE001  Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape  Peru 
PE002  Coto de Caza El Angolo  Peru 
PE003  Talara  Peru 
PE004  Suyo-La Tina  Peru 
PE005  Bosque de Cuyas  Peru 
PE006  Aypate  Peru 
PE009  Paltashaco  Peru 
PE010  Bosques Secos de Salitral - Huarmaca - Olmos  Peru 
PE012  Manglares de San Pedro - Vice  Peru 
PE015  Isla Lobos de Afuera  Peru 
PE016  Chiñama  Peru 
PE017  Laquipampa  Peru 
PE018  Santuario Histórico Bosque de Pomac  Peru 
PE019  Chaparrí  Peru 
PE021  Las Delicias  Peru 
PE022  Alto Valle del Saña  Peru 
PE023  Rafán  Peru 
PE024  Llaguén  Peru 
PE028  Wiñapajatun  Peru 
PE029  San Damián-Berna Puquio  Peru 
PE034  Pantanos de Villa  Peru 
PE051  Santuario Nacional Tabaconas-Namballe  Peru 

Threats and conservation 

The Tumbesian region is one of the most important and threatened of all EBAs. Less than 5% of the area remains forested: the landscape is a patchwork of cropland, only occasionally punctuated by small forest patches which are often confined to steep slopes that cannot be cultivated. Most forest types have suffered catastrophic losses since the 1950s. At only a handful of sites does the forest stretch unbroken for more than a few kilometres, but even then the forest, especially the understorey, is often degraded. The more arid vegetation, although affected by grazing and agriculture in valley bottoms, remains in a reasonable state within the region as a whole.

The Tumbesian avifauna is affected by five primary threats: most important is deforestation and understorey degradation, but also of significance is hunting, trade and tiny range sizes. The most severely endangered species are those which suffer a combination of these threats such as Penelope albipennis which is imperilled by both habitat destruction and hunting, compounded by its tiny range and population (Collar et al. 1992, Best and Kessler 1995). Due primarily to the widespread destruction and degradation of the characteristic forests, 15 of the restricted-range birds are considered threatened. Only one of these species, Phytotoma raimondii, is confined to the desert zone, where it is under threat from the loss (through irrigated agriculture) of its riverine thicket habitat (Collar et al. 1992). Atlapetes pallidiceps (classified as Critical) has not been seen since 1969 and may already be extinct (Collar et al. 1994).

Various initiatives have prioritized the remnant forest blocks in this EBA in terms of their conservation importance: Best and Kessler (1995) documented 15 priority sites for habitat conservation and 30 sites for bird conservation, while Wege and Long (1995) detailed 43 Key Areas for the threatened birds in the region. These assessments are complementary, and they present clear recommendations for conservation action that is urgently needed if a number of species are to survive in the long term, given the continued loss of habitat and the current inadequacy of forest protection. Protected-area coverage in this EBA, while prolonging the survival of a number of forest patches, does not presently ensure the survival of all the threatened birds, many of which require large, relatively undisturbed tracts incorporating a number of forest types (Collar et al. 1992). However, Machalilla National Park (Ecuador) and the North-west Peru Biosphere Reserve support the largest remaining forest fragments within the EBA, and consequently stand out as being critically important for many threatened species (see also Parker et al. 1995). Smaller, but extremely important reserves currently include Jatun Sacha Bilsa Biological Reserve, R

Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Endemic Bird Area factsheet: Tumbesian region. Downloaded from on 27/10/2016

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife