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Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa
Country/Territory Mexico
Area 14,000 
Altitude 0 - 1,500m  
Priority urgent 
Habitat loss major 
Knowledge incomplete 

General characteristics 

The Sierra Los Tuxtlas are mountains located near the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican state of Veracruz. It is an area of intense volcanic activity with many peaks, including Volc

Restricted-range species 

This region has been identified as an EBA since the previous analysis (ICBP 1992) owing to the recent recognition of Geotrygon carrikeri and Hylorchilus navai as full species. G. carrikeri was previously regarded as a well-marked and isolated subspecies of the widespread Purplish-backed Quail-dove G. lawrenci of Costa Rica and Panama, but its larger size, paler plumage and possibly different calls and egg colour, as well as the fact that its breeding range lies more than 1,500 km from that of the nominate form, together indicate that it is better treated as a species (Peterson 1993, Howell and Webb 1995a). It is confined to the Los Tuxtlas region, occurring on both of the main volcanoes. H. navai was originally described as a subspecies of Sumichrasts Wren H. sumichrasti (see Atkinson et al. 1993 and Secondary Area s006). It was poorly known until the 1980s when populations were found in the northern part of the Uxpanapa region, mainly in the Coatzacoalcos drainage of eastern Veracruz, in neighbouring Oaxaca and in western Chiapas along the La Venta canyon (Collar et al. 1992, Whittingham and Atkinson 1996). Its range lies within the forests on karst limestone outcrops in the central zone of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec.

Campylopterus excellens is probably found throughout the EBA (i.e. in the intervening lowland area between Sierra Los Tuxtlas and the Uxpanapa and El Ocote regions), but most records are from the Sierra Los Tuxtlas with a few in the Uxpanapa region and just one from western Chiapas in the El Ocote region (Howell and Webb 1995a). The bird is, however, very similar to the widespread Wedge-tailed Sabrewing C. curvipennis (with which it is often considered conspecific), and so may well be overlooked. In Sierra Los Tuxtlas it is a fairly common member of the understorey avifauna, also occurring there in degraded habitats such as forest edge and overgrown orchards (Winker et al. 1992).

Species IUCN Category
Tuxtla Quail-dove (Zentrygon carrikeri)  EN 
 (Campylopterus excellens)  NR 
Nava's Wren (Hylorchilus navai)  VU 

Important Bird Areas (IBAs)

IBA Code Site Name Country
MX151  The Tuxtlas  Mexico 
MX155  Mountain of Tabasco  Mexico 
MX167  The Ocote  Mexico 
MX191  Corridor Lagoon Belgium-Sierra Lemon-Canyon Drain  Mexico 
MX193  Uxpanapa  Mexico 

Threats and conservation 

The EBA has suffered from extensive deforestation especially in Veracruz. A recent study estimated that 86% of the original forest area of Volc

Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Endemic Bird Area factsheet: Los Tuxtlas and Uxpanapa. Downloaded from on 24/10/2016

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