email a friend
printable version
Tuamotu archipelago
Country/Territory French Polynesia
Area 690 
Altitude 0 - 100m  
Priority critical 
Habitat loss moderate 
Knowledge poor 

General characteristics 

The EBA comprises the 78 islands of the Tuamotu archipelago, which stretch over nearly 1,500 km2 of ocean, and the nine Gambier Islands to the south-east. All politically part of French Polynesia, which is an overseas territory of France (see also EBAs 211-213, and Secondary Area s136). Makatea and Niau are raised atolls, other islands are low atolls, not more than 7 m above sea-level, while Mangareva and some small islets in the Gambier Islands are volcanic.

The native vegetation, mostly Pandanus, Pisonia and Cordia scrub, has now been largely replaced with coconut plantations on many atolls (Davis et al. 1986); the flora of Makatea is rich compared to that of other islands with a dry forest interior.

Restricted-range species 

Most of the restricted-range species are forest and scrub birds, but a number occur in coconut plantations. Prosobonia cancellata, Gallicolumba erythroptera and Ptilinopus coralensis were formerly widespread on the low atolls, but only the last of these is now present on more than a few islands. Vini peruviana was also widespread in the northern Tuamotus, but now occurs at fewer islands. The three raised islands on the other hand have (or had) localized endemics or near-endemics, with Ducula aurorae and Ptilinopus chalcurus at Makatea, Todirhamphus gambieri gertrudae at Niau and (formerly) Todirhamphus gambieri gambieri at Mangareva. Another species, Lanius gambieranus (perhaps actually an endemic Acrocephalus warbler), from the Gambier Islands was described in 1844, but the specimen is apparently lost (D.

Species IUCN Category
 (Prosobonia cancellata)  NR 
Polynesian Imperial-pigeon (Ducula aurorae)  EN 
Polynesian Ground-dove (Alopecoenas erythropterus)  CR 
Atoll Fruit-dove (Ptilinopus coralensis)  NT 
Makatea Fruit-dove (Ptilinopus chalcurus)  VU 
Blue Lorikeet (Vini peruviana)  VU 
Tuamotu Kingfisher (Todiramphus gambieri)  CR 
Tuamotu Reed-warbler (Acrocephalus atyphus)  LC 

Important Bird Areas (IBAs)

IBA Code Site Name Country
  Anuanuraro  French Polynesia 
  Apataki  French Polynesia 
  Arutua  French Polynesia 
  Kauehi  French Polynesia 
  Kaukura  French Polynesia 
  Tikehau  French Polynesia 
PF023  Makatea  French Polynesia 
PF024  Niau  French Polynesia 
PF025  Motu de l'ouest et du sud de Rangiroa  French Polynesia 
PF026  Apataki, Arutua et Kaukura (Îles Palliser)  French Polynesia 
PF027  Tahanea  French Polynesia 
PF028  Reitoru  French Polynesia 
PF030  Tenararo  French Polynesia 
PF031  Morane  French Polynesia 

Threats and conservation 

The conservation situation in the Tuamotus is perhaps slightly more favourable than that in other French Polynesian archipelagos as a result of their geographic spread, isolation, difficulty of access and low human population. However, a few metres rise in sea levels (as now predicted) will quite likely cause the extinction of the rarer species.

In common with many other small-island areas, predation by introduced rats (particularly black rat Rattus rattus) is a current serious threat: for example, Prosobonia cancellata is found only on islands free from this pest, and it is also likely that rats have been responsible for the extinction of Gallicolumba erythroptera from many islands (Seitre and Seitre 1991).

Habitat destruction was a problem on Makatea, where phosphate mining (1917-1964) had confined the entire populations of Ducula aurorae and Ptilinopus chalcurus to the remaining inner forest (c.10 km2 in total). These species are, however, relatively common today, with stable populations, and it is likely that they will extend their ranges as the vegetation recovers. The extinction of Vini peruviana, a habitat generalist, from Makatea is more likely the result of a particularly violent hurricane and/or the introduction of predators rather than being due to mining activities (Thibault and Guyot 1987), and illustrates the permanent vulnerability of small-island species to chance events.

Mururoa and Fangataufa atolls in the south-east of the Tuamotus have been used by France for nuclear tests since 1966 (most recently in 1995-1996, but subsequently stopped), and it is likely that these activities will have extirpated populations of Acrocephalus atyphus on Fangataufa at least (J. C.

Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Endemic Bird Area factsheet: Tuamotu archipelago. Downloaded from on 27/10/2016

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife