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Northern Maluku
Country/Territory Indonesia
Area 27,000 
Altitude 0 - 2,000m  
Priority urgent 
Habitat loss limited 
Knowledge incomplete 

General characteristics 

Lying in northern Maluku province of Indonesia, this EBA includes the islands of Halmahera, Morotai, Bacan, Obi, the chain of volcanic islands to the west of Halmahera (which includes Ternate, Tidore, Mare, Moti and Kayoa) and many other small associated islands. The four peninsulas which make up Halmahera are all mountainous, but only reach a maximum altitude of 1,635

Restricted-range species 

The avifauna of Northern Maluku is very distinct, and includes the four monotypic endemic genera, Habroptila, Melitograis, Lycocorax and Semioptera. Most of the EBA's restricted-range species have been recorded on Halmahera (see 'Distribution patterns' table), and four are known only from this island. Two species are restricted to the southern islands of the EBA: Ptilinopus granulifrons, which is known from the lowlands of Obi, and Scolopax rochussenii, which is recorded from Obi and Bacan where it appears to be confined to montane forest.

The habitat requirements and distribution of the restricted-range species have not formerly been well documented, but survey work on Halmahera since 1994 by PHPA/BirdLife International and others has added considerably to knowledge of their habitat requirements, altitudinal ranges and population densities (MacKinnon et al. 1994, M. K. Poulsen in litt. 1996). Most of the restricted-range species which occur on Halmahera were recorded during the surveys, and many were found to be common. All of these species were recorded in lowland rain forest, but many were also found in montane rain forest above c.700

Species IUCN Category
Dusky Scrubfowl (Megapodius freycinet)  LC 
Moluccan Scrubfowl (Eulipoa wallacei)  VU 
Moluccan Goshawk (Accipiter henicogrammus)  NT 
Rufous-necked Sparrowhawk (Accipiter erythrauchen)  NT 
Drummer Rail (Habroptila wallacii)  VU 
Moluccan Woodcock (Scolopax rochussenii)  EN 
 (Ducula myristicivora)  NR 
 (Ducula basilica)  NR 
 (Ducula perspicillata)  NR 
Scarlet-breasted Fruit-dove (Megaloprepia formosa)  LC 
Blue-capped Fruit-dove (Ptilinopus monacha)  NT 
Grey-headed Fruit-dove (Ptilinopus hyogastrus)  LC 
Carunculated Fruit-dove (Ptilinopus granulifrons)  VU 
Pink-headed Imperial-pigeon (Ducula rosacea)  NT 
 (Loriculus amabilis)  NR 
Violet-necked Lory (Eos squamata)  LC 
Chattering Lory (Lorius garrulus)  VU 
Moluccan Cuckoo (Cacomantis aeruginosus)  NT 
Goliath Coucal (Centropus goliath)  LC 
 (Ninox squamipila)  NR 
Moluccan Owlet-nightjar (Aegotheles crinifrons)  LC 
Azure Dollarbird (Eurystomus azureus)  NT 
Blue-and-white Kingfisher (Todiramphus diops)  LC 
Sombre Kingfisher (Todiramphus funebris)  VU 
Ivory-breasted Pitta (Pitta maxima)  LC 
White-streaked Friarbird (Melitograis gilolensis)  LC 
Dusky Friarbird (Philemon fuscicapillus)  VU 
Olive Honeyeater (Lichmera argentauris)  LC 
Halmahera Cuckooshrike (Coracina parvula)  LC 
Moluccan Cuckooshrike (Coracina atriceps)  LC 
Pale Cicadabird (Coracina ceramensis)  LC 
Rufous-bellied Triller (Lalage aurea)  LC 
Island Whistler (Pachycephala phaionota)  LC 
Drab Whistler (Pachycephala griseonota)  LC 
Dusky-brown Oriole (Oriolus phaeochromus)  LC 
White-naped Monarch (Monarcha pileatus)  LC 
Dark-grey Flycatcher (Myiagra galeata)  LC 
Long-billed Crow (Corvus validus)  NT 
Standardwing (Semioptera wallacii)  NT 
Paradise-crow (Lycocorax pyrrhopterus)  LC 
Creamy-throated White-eye (Zosterops atriceps)  LC 
Flame-breasted Flowerpecker (Dicaeum erythrothorax)  LC 
White Cockatoo (Cacatua alba)  EN 

Important Bird Areas (IBAs)

IBA Code Site Name Country
ID192  Morotai  Indonesia 
ID193  Galela  Indonesia 
ID194  Gamkonora  Indonesia 
ID195  Tanah Putih  Indonesia 
ID196  Rawa Sagu Ake Jailolo  Indonesia 
ID197  Aketajawe  Indonesia 
ID198  Lolobata  Indonesia 
ID199  Hutan Bakau Dodaga  Indonesia 
ID200  Labi Labi  Indonesia 
ID201  Gunung Sibela  Indonesia 
ID202  Gunung Batu Putih  Indonesia 

Threats and conservation 

The principal long-term threat to the restricted-range species of this EBA is forest loss. Parts of the northern peninsula of Halmahera and the Ternate, Tidore, Mare, Moti and Kayoa islands are volcanic, and the rich volcanic soils have long been intensively cultivated for cloves and other spices (FAO 1982d). Elsewhere, extensive tracts of forest remain, but most of this is included within timber concessions, and there are also plans for agricultural development (RePPProT 1990).

Six of the restricted-range birds of this EBA are threatened: the two species confined to Obi and Bacan, because they have specialized habitat requirements and are likely to be vulnerable to forest loss; Megapodius wallacei because it nests colonially on beaches and is affected by egg-harvesting, habitat loss and hunting; Cacatua alba and Lorius garrulus because of a combination of habitat loss and trapping (both legal and illegal) for the cage-bird trade at levels which may not be sustainable (see Lambert 1993b); and the flightless Habroptila wallacii, because it is apparently confined to a few areas of swamp forest and is likely to be vulnerable to introduced or feral predators. Two particularly poorly known species are treated as Data Deficient.

There are currently no gazetted protected areas within this EBA. A network of representative areas has been proposed, which would include large areas of the key habitats on most of the main islands, and would almost certainly support populations of all of the restricted-range species. The most important proposed protected areas are Lalobata and Aketajawi on Halmahera, Wayabula on Morotai, Gunung Sibela on Bacan and Pulau Obi on Obi (FAO 1982d, Sujatnika and Jepson 1995). The proposals for Lalobata and Aketajawi have recently been revised, and a single new area proposed which covers c.3,550

Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Endemic Bird Area factsheet: Northern Maluku. Downloaded from on 23/10/2016

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