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Timor and Wetar
Country/Territory Indonesia,Timor-Leste
Area 34,000 
Altitude 0 - 2,600m  
Priority urgent 
Habitat loss major 
Knowledge poor 

General characteristics 

The EBA comprises Timor and its associated islands of Sawu, Roti and Semau (in eastern Nusa Tenggara Timur and Timor Timur provinces of Indonesia), and Wetar (in south-east Maluku province). Wetar is volcanic, and lies off the eastern end of the main chain of the Lesser Sunda Islands, whereas the other islands lie to the south of the main chain and are not volcanic. Both the main islands are mountainous, rising to 2,960

Restricted-range species 

The 23 species which are endemic to this EBA include the monotypic genus Buettikoferella. The habitat requirements, altitudinal ranges and abundance of the region's restricted-range birds are, in general, poorly documented. There has been a survey undertaken recently of some of the remnant forest patches in the west of Timor (see Noske and Saleh 1993, Noske 1995), but there is little information on eastern Timor, and Wetar appears to have been visited only once by ornithologists since 1910-and then only for a few hours (White and Bruce 1986, Robson 1990).

The main habitats of the restricted-range species are deciduous monsoon forest and woodland and semi-evergreen rain forest; the exception to this is Padda fuscata which is mainly a bird of open country areas. Some of the forest birds appear to be restricted to closed-canopy habitat, but many occur additionally in open woodland, savanna, scrub and agricultural land. Most of them occupy a wide altitudinal range, but a few seem to be confined to the lowlands, and Ducula cineracea and Zoothera dohertyi are restricted to montane forest. Most of the restricted-range species have been recorded on Timor, and seven are endemic to that island, but three species are confined to the smaller island of Wetar.

Species IUCN Category
Dusky Cuckoo-dove (Macropygia magna)  LC 
Black Cuckoo-dove (Turacoena modesta)  NT 
Wetar Ground-dove (Alopecoenas hoedtii)  EN 
Timor Green-pigeon (Treron psittaceus)  EN 
Pink-headed Imperial-pigeon (Ducula rosacea)  NT 
Timor Imperial-pigeon (Ducula cineracea)  NT 
Olive-headed Lorikeet (Trichoglossus euteles)  LC 
Iris Lorikeet (Psitteuteles iris)  NT 
Jonquil Parrot (Aprosmictus jonquillaceus)  NT 
Cinnamon-banded Kingfisher (Todiramphus australasia)  NT 
Streaky-breasted Honeyeater (Meliphaga reticulata)  LC 
Plain Friarbird (Philemon inornatus)  LC 
White-tufted Honeyeater (Lichmera squamata)  LC 
Yellow-eared Honeyeater (Lichmera flavicans)  LC 
Black-chested Honeyeater (Lichmera notabilis)  LC 
Crimson-hooded Myzomela (Myzomela kuehni)  LC 
Red-rumped Myzomela (Myzomela vulnerata)  LC 
Plain Gerygone (Gerygone inornata)  LC 
Fawn-breasted Whistler (Pachycephala orpheus)  LC 
Wetar Figbird (Sphecotheres hypoleucus)  LC 
Timor Figbird (Sphecotheres viridis)  LC 
Olive-brown Oriole (Oriolus melanotis)  LC 
Timor Stubtail (Urosphena subulata)  LC 
Buff-banded Grassbird (Buettikoferella bivittata)  LC 
Timor Leaf-warbler (Phylloscopus presbytes)  LC 
Spot-breasted White-eye (Heleia muelleri)  NT 
Chestnut-backed Thrush (Zoothera dohertyi)  NT 
Orange-banded Thrush (Zoothera peronii)  NT 
White-bellied Bushchat (Saxicola gutturalis)  NT 
Black-banded Flycatcher (Ficedula timorensis)  NT 
Timor Blue-flycatcher (Cyornis hyacinthinus)  LC 
Red-chested Flowerpecker (Dicaeum maugei)  LC 
Flame-breasted Sunbird (Nectarinia solaris)  LC 
Tricoloured Parrotfinch (Erythrura tricolor)  LC 
Timor Sparrow (Padda fuscata)  NT 

Important Bird Areas (IBAs)

IBA Code Site Name Country
ID150  Semau  Indonesia 
ID152  Bipolo  Indonesia 
ID153  Camplong  Indonesia 
ID154  Manipo  Indonesia 
ID155  Gunung Timau  Indonesia 
ID156  Gunung Mutis  Indonesia 
ID157  Oenasi  Indonesia 
ID158  Buat - Soe  Indonesia 
ID159  Kateri - Maubesi  Indonesia 
TL01  Tilomar  Timor-Leste 
TL02  Monte Tatamailau  Timor-Leste 
TL03  Fatumasin  Timor-Leste 
TL04  Atauro Island  Timor-Leste 
TL05  Sungai Klere  Timor-Leste 
TL06  Lore  Timor-Leste 
TL07  Monte Paitchau (proposed Conis Santana National Park)  Timor-Leste 
TL08  Jaco Island  Timor-Leste 
TL09  Monte Diatuto  Timor-Leste 
TL10  Be Malae  Timor-Leste 
TL11  Maubara  Timor-Leste 
TL12  Monte Mak Fahik - Sarim  Timor-Leste 
TL13  Tasitolu  Timor-Leste 
TL14  Areia Branca no Dolok Oan  Timor-Leste 
TL15  Subaun  Timor-Leste 
TL16  Irabere - Iliomar  Timor-Leste 

Threats and conservation 

On Timor, most forest in the coastal lowlands and in broad valleys has already been cleared, and denuded grassy areas now extend far into the hills (FAO 1982c, White and Bruce 1986). The monsoon forests are reduced to scattered patches (RePPProT 1990, Collins et al. 1991), with large areas converted to savanna, as a result of clearance for agriculture and fires (either deliberate or accidental) which increase fodder production for livestock (Whitten and Whitten 1992). In western Timor there are about seven significant forest remnants, all relatively small (the largest is c.90

Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Endemic Bird Area factsheet: Timor and Wetar. Downloaded from on 23/10/2016

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