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Western Ghats
Country/Territory India
Area 61,000 
Altitude 0 - 2,600m  
Priority urgent 
Habitat loss moderate 
Knowledge good 

General characteristics 

The Western Ghats are ranges of hills along the western edge of the Deccan plateau in peninsular India. The EBA extends along the Ghats from just north of Bombay south to the tip of the peninsula, in the states of Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, although a few of the restricted-range species present are also recorded from disjunct localities in the hills to the east, in northern Tamil Nadu and southern Andhra Pradesh.

The Western Ghats receive heavy monsoon rainfall, and tropical lowland evergreen rain forest formerly occurred in areas of highest rainfall along virtually their entire length

Restricted-range species 

Seven of the restricted-range bird species are found between sea-level and c.1,500

Species IUCN Category
Nilgiri Woodpigeon (Columba elphinstonii)  VU 
Malabar Parakeet (Psittacula columboides)  LC 
Malabar Grey Hornbill (Ocyceros griseus)  LC 
White-bellied Treepie (Dendrocitta leucogastra)  LC 
Grey-headed Bulbul (Pycnonotus priocephalus)  NT 
Broad-tailed Grassbird (Schoenicola platyurus)  VU 
Rufous Babbler (Turdoides subrufa)  LC 
Wynaad Laughingthrush (Garrulax delesserti)  LC 
 (Garrulax cachinnans)  NR 
 (Garrulax jerdoni)  NR 
 (Brachypteryx major)  NR 
Black-and-rufous Flycatcher (Ficedula nigrorufa)  NT 
Nilgiri Flycatcher (Eumyias albicaudatus)  NT 
White-bellied Blue-flycatcher (Cyornis pallipes)  LC 
Crimson-backed Sunbird (Nectarinia minima)  LC 
Nilgiri Pipit (Anthus nilghiriensis)  VU 

Important Bird Areas (IBAs)

IBA Code Site Name Country
IN154  Bhimashankar Wildlife Sanctuary  India 
IN157  INS - Shivaji and adjoining areas, Lonavla  India 
IN160  Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary  India 
IN167  Radhanagari Wildlife Sanctuary  India 
IN168  Sanjay Gandhi National Park  India 
IN174  Bhagwan Mahavir Wildlife Sanctuary (including Molem)  India 
IN175  Carambolim Wetlands  India 
IN176  Cotigao Wildlife Sanctuary  India 
IN177  Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary and area  India 
IN179  Anshi National Park  India 
IN180  Bandipur National Park  India 
IN181  Bannerghatta National Park  India 
IN182  Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary  India 
IN183  Bhimgad Forests  India 
IN184  Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary and Hills  India 
IN185  Brahmagiri Wildlife Sanctuary  India 
IN186  Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuary  India 
IN187  Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary  India 
IN188  Gudavi Bird Sanctuary  India 
IN192  Kemmangundi and Bababudan Hills  India 
IN193  Kemphole Reserve Forest  India 
IN196  Kudremukh National Park  India 
IN202  Nagarhole National Park  India 
IN203  Nandi Hills  India 
IN205  Pushpagiri Wildlife Sanctuary  India 
IN209  Sharavathi Valley Wildlife Sanctuary  India 
IN210  Someshwara Wildlife Sanctuary  India 
IN212  Talakaveri Wildlife Sanctuary  India 
IN232  Amarambalam Reserved Forest - Nilambur  India 
IN233  Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary  India 
IN234  Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary  India 
IN235  Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary  India 
IN236  Eravikulam National Park  India 
IN237  Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary  India 
IN240  Konni Reserve Forest  India 
IN241  Kottiyoor Reserve Forest  India 
IN242  Kulahupuzha Reserved Forest  India 
IN243  Nelliyampathy (Nemmara Division)  India 
IN244  Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary  India 
IN245  Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary  India 
IN246  Peechi - Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary  India 
IN247  Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary  India 
IN248  Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary  India 
IN249  Ranni Reserve Forest  India 
IN250  Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary  India 
IN251  Silent Valley National Park  India 
IN252  Thattekkad Wildlife Sanctuary  India 
IN253  Vazhachal Forest Division  India 
IN255  Wynaad Wildlife Sanctuary  India 
IN256  Avalanche (Nilgiri)  India 
IN257  Berijam (Kodaikanal)  India 
IN259  Bison Swamp (Nilgiri)  India 
IN260  Cairn Hill Reserve Forest (Nilgiri)  India 
IN262  Governor's Shola (Nilgiri)  India 
IN263  Grass Hills  India 
IN265  Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park  India 
IN266  Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve  India 
IN270  Longwood Shola - Kothagiri  India 
IN272  Mudumalai National Park  India 
IN273  Mukurthi National Park (Nilgiris)  India 
IN274  Naduvattam  India 
IN276  Poomparai and Kukkal  India 
IN277  Shola around Kodaikanal  India 
IN278  Srivilliputhur Wildlife Sanctuary  India 
IN280  Thaishola  India 
IN281  Tirunelveli Reserve Forest  India 
IN289  Muthukuzhi  India 

Threats and conservation 

The main threat is habitat loss and degradation. The lowland evergreen and semi-evergreen rain forests probably once extended onto the coastal plain to the west of the Ghats, but almost all forest below 500

Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Endemic Bird Area factsheet: Western Ghats. Downloaded from on 21/10/2016

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife